The point where the line touches the x axis is called the x intercept. The point where the line touches the y axis is called the y intercept.

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In maybe 90% of cases most exploit will work out of the box, but sometimes you need to really understand what it does and fix it or find a workaround for a case like this. As a note: I have verified that on latest PAN OS, they fixed a lot of things including this cron script (but I don’t know in which particular version this bug was fixed).


We need to have that string as a filename, but we can’t have a slash (/) in a filename on Linux, so we need to escape this. My method is to use ${PATH:0:1}, using the fact the $PATH variable always has a slash as the first character.

The first difficult part in reversing a hardware is to extract the firmware (since no one has shared this on the internet). To be precise: the difficult part is soldering the wires to the SPI flash chip. Information from BobThePigeon_ post helped a lot because I don’t need to figure out the pinout.


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For the same reasoning, we also can’t go to 0x00e0XXYY or to the stack (0xff is not valid anywhere in UTF-8 sequence). We can only go to the heap, but I was not able to find anything there. I also thought that maybe the count of the received bytes can be made into an instruction that could help us jump to our buffer, but since we are limited to only receiving 256 bytes (so the count is maximum 0x0100), I couldn’t find any instruction that can work.


In Java, we can create static initializer, and it will be executed (once) when the class is used the first time. We should add logging code at beginning of <clinit>.

Morally I know it would probably be wrong but what if it tastes really good? I mean I'd hate to compromise my moral compass but I am currently very hungry and would buy one? Maybe sell my birthright for a bowl of soup while I'm at it?


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Looking at the first C code in the search result shows that the code is very similar to the one in the disassembly. I didn’t check the detail of the validation code if it is exactly the same, but it reminds me of an article in Phrack Magazine: UTF-8 Shellcode (for Intel x86 Architecture) (please read this to understand about valid UTF-8 byte sequence).

I know that I should probably wait until his work is finished before publishing this, but I am also hoping that others can help him. May be implement the update for different iOS, or start working on implementation of Pokemon Go Plus for other devices.


We can use R9, R10, or LR to reference something in the data section (by adding/subtracting value from that register). We can reference something in our buffer using R3. At this point, I have two options: reading the ARM Thumb instruction set reference to check the encoding of every instruction, or just try out my luck if the instruction will work.

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This is an Arduino (AVR) challenge. You can read the full official solution from FireEye, here I just want to show how we can just find use “grep” to quickly find the decryption function to get the flag.


This is the details of the reverse engineering part. This part is divided into two main parts: the hardware reversing and firmware reversing.

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At the top of the Castle, N gazes upon the happenings beneath him, and comments that the stage is set just like his father has pictured and described. He wonders if this is good enough, and wishes to know the opinions of Anthea and Concordia, the goddesses of love and peace. Concordia tells N not to worry, and Anthea assures him that everything is currently at their best shape. N rationalizes that they are correct, and turns to his partner, the legendary black dragon, Zekrom. He states that it is time for them to act, since Reshiram, the cardinal opposite of Zekrom, has apparently returned to its full form already.

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It means that I can change the register r2, r3 and ip. At this point, I thought: well, this should easy. But it turns out that the addresses chosen by the programmer are devious.


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After extracting it and comparing the description with his write-up, it turns out to be using the exact same firmware as described by BobThePigeon_. So all the AES keys that encrypt the firmware is also the same. It also means that when there is a new update for PGP, this device should also be updateable.


There are several classes in the app that extracts a dex file from a byte array to a temporary name, and then removes the file. The array is encrypted and the filename is random. First thing that we want to know is: is this file important?

TL;DR; You can clone a Pokemon (click for more info) GO Plus device that you own. I have managed to get the certification algorithm. However, there is a per device blob used (specific to a Bluetooth Mac Address) for key generation. I have not figured out how you can generate your own blob and key. Using other’s people blob may be blacklisted in the future (or Niantic may ban your account).


For the hardware debugging, I did not use JTAG to debug the firmware. I did not perform a dynamic analysis using a debugger. So basically I only used a few cables to read and write the SPI flash.

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PGP will check that the 16 bytes (A) are indeed the same as the one that was sent. If not then it will terminate the connection. In general, in any step, if something is not right, the connection will be terminated.


When we encounter a Pokemon (check that) or Pokestop, the app will send a pattern of lights to be played by PGP. The app will then read the button status to decide what to do with the information. So we can’t reprogram it to select a particular ball or to give berries.

To add debugging, I created a Java file which I then compile to smali. The method can print any java Object. First, add the smali file for debugging to the smali directory.


It turns out that on iOS, the app can’t get BLE address of the peripheral, so I (or someone) should try again reimplementing this in Android. For the Android game version: Niantic should be able to detect/block this easily.

This is the very basic thing: we will check whether the app checks for its own signature. Initially, I use a locked bootloader, unrooted, real device (not an emulator).


TLDR: If your FL2K dongle only works on USB 2/0 ports, it may have been wired incorrectly. Rewiring it should make it work.

You can see that this Bitfield is implemented as BitField template class. This particular bit is easy to read, but if you see kNextBit, you need to look back at all previous bit definitions. I know it’s not that hard to follow for seasoned C++ developers, but still: to track these changes between versions, you need to do a lot of manual checks.


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First I tried using my multimeter’s continuity tester to check the color of the cables and the connection. It matches the standard coloring as listed in the USB 3/0 page on Wikipedia. For example, testing D+ pin on the USB port shows that it connects to the green cable and D- connects to the white cable.

We can easily write simple smali code by hand, but for more complicated code we should just write in Java, and convert it back to smali. It is also a good idea to make sure it works on the device.


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The variable spota_all_pd contains data sent from the updater app. The second parameter specifies where to write the data (the address in SPI block) and the third parameter is the size.


As a side note: here I realized that the UTF-8 filtering is not exactly the same as I expected, a sequence of “0xE1 0x80 0x80 0x74” should be acceptable, but somehow it was not acceptable at the end of the string. I didn’t check why since I can use the sequence at other parts of the string and I already got the constant that I am looking for.

The main firmware is 31984 bytes long and since this is Cortex-M0, it uses Thumb instruction set. This firmware is loaded at starting memory location: 0x20000000. It is not easy to understand the code just by looking the code in a disassembler, so my first approach is to try to see what a real firmware would look like if it has a full debugging information.


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Some of the first instruction that I checked was LDR Rx, [Rx] and STR Rx, [Rx]. And it turns out both will generate a valid UTF-8 sequence.

The iOS version consists of a single huge binary named pokemongo. This is a mix of Objective-C, Unity and native C++ code.


I gave this long explanation about security in case someone wants to make a portable set up out of this guide. If you bring your access point to a coffee shop, someone can break the encryption in a very short time and steal your next best-selling novel. I repeat that my setup is only for my desktop which is only reachable from my bedroom (and I live in a house which is quite far from my neighbors), and I don’t work on important documents.

1) ] On 1st January 2021, Laurie invests SP in an account that pays a nominal annual interest rate of 5.5

The app will decrypt the data, and check if the decrypted data is 0xaa followed by 15 zeroes. If it is as expected, the app will generate random 16 bytes data, encrypts it and pack it in the same format. Note that in BLE world, app payload packet is limited to 20 bytes, so this will come in several packets.


I will explain an alternative cron script that can be used for exploitation in the presence of another attacker. This exploit has been verified to work on PAN OS 6/1.0, but may work on other versions too (I don’t have other devices or firmware image to check this).

In the Android version, Niantic employs SafetyNet so that changing the APK will stop it from working. It is also very sensitive to any leftover trace of rooting tools, and the existence of some files will make it refuse to connect.


Since the hardware is the same, I tried following what BobThePigeon_ already did: holding the RST and read the flash. I use the flashrom package on Raspberry Pi software to read the SPI flash (you can also use Arduino board, Bus Pirate, or anything that can read SPI Flash).

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Now we can test this configuration by trying to connect using WiStat from Dana. If you can connect, the first part is complete. But you can’t access any file yet.


Open the zip file and extract all files. Once that is done right click on the one that says tetris in lowercase letters and send to ti device. Make sure it is being sent to the archive memory. Press the program key and run prgmA. Tetris should be there, and is ready to play.

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To extract all strings in the code. In my case: I was not able to find many strings. On the string that I did find, it was used for loading class. It means that: we need to be careful when renaming a class: it could be referenced from somewhere else as a string.

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There is a group that actively maintains a patched version of Pokemon GO called PokeGO++ (they even have a subscription for this service). They patched the security checks that exist in the binary and added a new library with method swizzling to add new features to the game (such as Teleport, IV Checker, etc). If anyone is interested in reversing the Pokemon GO game, then this would be a good starting point.

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The process for PGP is separate from the game process. The game communicates using SSL. Bypassing the SSL is not too hard, but apart from the initial handshake, subsequent packets are encrypted with custom encryption (they use another layer of encryption on top of SSL).


The reason that a specific tool can only dump a specific version of the snapshot is: the snapshot format is not stable, and it is designed to be run by a specific version of the runtime. Unlike some other formats where you can skip unknown or unsupported format, the snapshot format is very unforgiving. If you can’t parse a part, you can parse the next part.

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Like most trainers she can react to and give commands around just about any attack directed at her Pokemon
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I didn’t go into detail on the signature check algorithm, I know it uses big number computations, probably RSA but I didn’t verify it. I also don’t feel that I will find a bug there. What’s important is what happens next: if the signature is valid then a flag is set to indicate that the image is valid.


Side note, all I can see when I look at herdier is a dog wearing a shag carpet on its back. The fur literally has no definition and looks completely flat and weird and I honestly don't like it. Is it just a mass of matted fur? Because if so, that's disgusting.

First, we need to setup the static IP address for the wlan0, I choose 172/17/1.1. To do this, create /etc/network/interfaces/wlan0.


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For SLA: we need to find cross-references that call bit_is_sla, and we can see that another variable is always consulted. If SLA is not set, or SLA is already passed, we are allowed to perform the next action.

Please note that when exchanging nonce we exchange 16 bytes, only 13 bytes are used, and the other 3 bytes are overwritten. The nonce for AES CTR is prepared as pictured: first byte, and last two bytes are set to 0, and we copy the 13 bytes of the nonce (starting from offset 0) to offset 1 in the nonce.


The TI-84 graphing calculator has been one of the go-to graphing calculators in math courses for decades. Ever since its introduction in 2004. Teachers in both high school and college have adopted the TI-84 for graphing in algebra and calculus.

Frida is also an interesting tool that works most of the time. Some interesting scripts were already written or Frida, for example: appmon.


Although I was very upset when my phone got bricked, the experience in solving this problem has been very exciting. Thank you to Xyz for finding this exploit, and ChaosMaster for implementing it, simplifying it, and also for answering my questions and reviewing this post.

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The next arsenal that I have is a Raspberry Pi Zero W. I have checked that it is possible to do peripheral emulation using bluez, and it is also possible to change the mac address for BLE. It is also possible to program this using Python, so it seems to be a good choice.


Now we just need to find the reference to function_pointers and we can find the real address for sendbyte. By looking at related functions I was able to find the addresses for: usbdl_put_dword, usbdl_put_data, usbdl_get_data. Note that the exploit can be simplified a bit, by replacing usbdl_put_dword by a call to usbdl_put_data so we get 1 less address to worry about.

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At that moment, Black's capsule moves to the top of the finalists' board, signifying his victory over Cheren, and Zinzolin congratulates the boy for finally accomplishing his dream in conquering the League. The unfortunate thing is, not a single audience is present to witness his moment. Black glances over to see that the audience stands have been emptied out, and Secretta informs him that everyone has been evacuated to safety under the guidance of Drayden and Iris, just in case something bad should happen. Black feels grateful about the arrangement, for it spares him the concern of acting out his anger in the presence of innocent bystanders. With that, he storms towards Zinzolin and grabs him by the collar, demanding to know where the Gymleaders are, and where the Hoodman has taken White to.

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The short answer is I don’t know. I don’t know how they can generate the combination of a new blob, mac address, and device encryption key.


The first check that we need to get through is the headers: there are 8 bytes that we need to use to get through the first check. This is quite easy, it just compares the first 4 bytes with the result of a function call, and the next 4 bytes from another function call. Without understanding the function we can find these values easily using Qemu.

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The binary is statically linked and stripped. It means that you will not be able to find the function names in the ELF file. The Qemu output helps me to quickly identify some syscalls.


I tried several other tools that looked promising, such as simplify (really promising, but when I tested it, it’s really slow). I also tried: Dex-Oracle (it didn’t work). JADX also has some simple renamer for obfuscated names, but it was not enough for this case.

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Google search shows that it is used in UTF-8 validity checking. If the received characters are a valid UTF-8 string then it will print “All Your Base” and then exit (the string AAAA happens to be a valid UTF-8 string). Sending a string that is not a valid UTF-8 sequence will cause the program to exit without print “All your base”.


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For the file share, I set up one Samba public share to transfer files from/to my Dana. This share is only accessible through the subnet obtained from WEP access point. In the very worst case, if someone can get in, they can steal my files in that share. But since I am not working on anything secret (mostly just my draft for my blog posts), I am willing to accept the risk.


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You may ask: if this is for pentesting, why don’t you just ask for the debug version of the app? In many cases: yes we can have it, and it makes our job really easy. In some cases, due to a contract between the bank and the app vendor (or some other legal or technical reasons), they can only give a Play Store or iTunes URL.


This approach can also be used to test part of code from the app itself. We can extract smali code, add main, and run it.

Note that we are sending bytes in little endian, so sending 0x12 0x34 0x56 0x78 will make us jump to 0x78563412. If we overwrite 4 bytes of the PC, then we can’t go to address: 0xdada0000 (where our buffer is), since 0xda 0xda can never be a part of a valid UTF-8 sequence. We can’t jump directly to our code segment at 0x00d8XXYY - 0x00dfXXYY, because YY XX 0xd8 0x00 - YY XX 0xdf 0x00 also cannot form a valid UTF-8 sequence.


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I just finished pentesting a mobile app for a financial institution. I wrote this mainly as a note for future manual deobfuscation work. I have read a lot of articles and tested tools to deobfuscate Android apps but they are mostly for analyzing malware. Sometimes I need to deobfuscate and test app for the pentesting purpose.

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The source for generic_dump_payload is is available in ChaosMaster’s repository. But I didn’t find that information sooner so I just disassembled the file. This is a small binary, so we can reverse engineer it easily using binary ninja. It turns out that it does some pattern matching to find the prolog of the function: 2d e9 f8 4f 80 46 8a 46. Actually, it searches for the second function that has that prolog.


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The interval of increase is. The vertex of a parabola is the point where the parabola crosses its axis of symmetry. I can rewrite quadratic equations from standard to vertex and vice versa.

This challenge was quite fun, it looks very simple at first, but is quite challenging. The code that I submitted works well but was not very optimized.


We can tap on the green icon, and the app will disconnect from the PGP. We can tap it again to reconnect. At this point, we can just forget about everything and starts the protocol from the beginning again, or we can perform a reconnection protocol which is faster.

Ghetsis grins that although Black has assisted in the manifestation of 'Truth' and allowed Reshiram to revert from the Light Stone into its real form, he is of no use in the current setting anymore. He points that with the remaining Gymleader and his apprentice being caught up in safeguarding the League's spectators, the Champion Alder having gone missing, and the Elite 4 busy taking on the legendary Pokemon, there really is no one left at the scene who has to power to resist Team Plasma.


The Bevx challenge is a security challenge from Beyond Security for their Bevx conference. I didn’t know about the first challenge, and since I don’t use Twitter every day, I almost missed this second challenge. I only found out about this since my friend shared the Twitter link. It seems that the tweet causes a bit of confusion because several people asked me: where is the challenge link?

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When the challenge was posted it was a Songkran Holiday in Thailand. I started working on this challenge more than 24 hours since it was posted so I was in hurry to send it quickly hoping that I might get the second or third prize. I was happily surprised when I found out that I was the first to send the correct solution.


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The next check is a bit more complicated, but the constants in the listing (0xF0C0C0 0xE08080 ) helps a lot in finding the algorithm. I admit that I was lucky to have worked with UTF-8 related stuff and Unicode in general so that looking at the constant already gives me a vague idea that it might use UTF-8. And Google is always available to confirm this.