Where CV is the Charpy impact energy, B is the thickness of the specimens. Based on the data in Table 1, the fracture toughness of API 5L X56 steel material can be calculated. Combined with the tensile test of metal materials, the basic mechanical properties of API 5L X56 steel material are listed in Table 2.

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Structural cracking is a major problem for large infrastructures including dams, bridges, submarine pipelines and offshore wind turbine foundations. At the same time, reliability analysis has become a concern of researchers. Based on the probability theory, reliability analysis of fatigue (https://kislovoadmin.ru/hack/?patch=4122) fracture for engineering structures and components has been conducted, and proposed several analysis models. Commonly used techniques include Monte Carlo simulation method and first-order reliability method . In Monte Carlo simulation, the random variable is formed by its distribution function. For each Monte Carlo simulation sample, the sensitivity of each stress intensity factor (SIF) to the random variable is calculated and compared with the obtained SIF to evaluate whether failure will occur. Based on the above method, the fatigue life of the pipeline is analyzed [18,19,20]. An S-N curve based on damage mechanics is another way to predict fatigue life. The S-N curve is used to predict the fatigue life of crack in suspended pipeline. Wormsen et al. carried out tests on low alloy machined steel forgings and analyzed S-N curves in air and seawater environments with cathodic protection measures.


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Other details to look out for include poor-quality boxes andpackaging, logos that aren’t quite right, styles you’ve never seenanywhere before, and generally bad finishing, including in adhesivesand stitching. The more corners counterfeit producers cut, the highertheir profits, so if you can give the shoes a really good inspection,you’ll start seeing flaws that would never have made it past ourquality control specialists. The safest way to avoid fakes is to onlybuy from Timberland® stores or our authorized retailers (see below).

The manufacturer is responsible for tracking activities once the metal ships to a manufacturing facility

The responsibility for the recall apparently was on Olin, as they were the parent company at time of manufacture. Olin set up regional recall centers at three established US gunshops. There was a manufacturing delay in the replacement firing pins, and a backlog occurred, also some collectors did not like the idea of shipping their guns long distances. Olin then also authorized other gunshops to make the required alterations. Upon completion of the recall, the shops were to test fire the firearm and to stamp an assigned letter on the inside top of the receiver as seen thru the magazine well with the bolt retracted. The letter “B” represented Bolsa Gunsmithing, “L” was Lefever, and “N” was for Nu-line Guns. The letter “X” apparently was for all the other independent shops. However this identification information did not get communicated to some of the smaller shops at the start of the project. The only way to tell if the gun as been modified, if the ”letter” is not present, is to take the barrel & action out of the stock, remove the trigger guard assembly and the try to rotate the firing pin by twisting it. If it does NOT rotate, then the firing pin recall HAS been performed.


To simulate the seawater conditions, natural seawater is continuously injected into the crack (i thought about this)-containing part during the test. At the same time, non-corrosive clean water is injected into the pipeline to monitor the penetration of the fatigue crack (read review). A large amount of water leakage occurs when the fatigue crack (get the facts) is through the tube wall. At the left of Figure 11, the crack has been penetrated and the water starts to drip. After the end of the fatigue test, the crack surface is visible in the cut pipe as shown in Figure 11. It can be seen from the fatigue crack surface that the fatigue crack expands in both length and depth direction. However, the expansion rate does not change uniformly during the fatigue crack propagation. In the beginning, the initial crack propagates faster along the depth direction of the pipeline, while the crack propagates relatively slowly along the length. As the crack depth increases, the FCG rate along the circumferential direction increases.

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The rules above about checkingfor quality, packaging and details all apply here too. With a carefuleye and feel you can usually identify fakes quickly, especially ifyou’re familiar with Timberland® products.


By comparing the Paris law constants obtained from equations in the standard and from the presented equation in this study, it is found that the Paris law constants calculated from the equation recommended in the standard are usually smaller than the results calculated from the new presented equation of the shape factor. When the fatigue life is predicted by using the equation recommended in the standard, the prediction is too conservative.


API 5L X56 pipeline steel is now used in the submarine pipelines in the Bohai sea of China. Corresponding studies on X56 submarine pipeline steel have also been carried out in the literature [10,15,16]. Yi et al. simulated stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen permeation behavior of X56 pipeline steel under atmospheric environment containing SO2, and the results show that hydrogen ion concentration decreases with time, indicating that the hydrogen concentration on the surface decreases with the formation of corrosion rust. As the passivation film dissolves, the hydrogen permeation rate increases and the stress corrosion cracking sensitivity of API 5L X56 increases with the increase of SO2 concentration. Zhu et al. studied the permeation action of API 5L X56 steel in the sea mud with and without sulfate-reducing bacteria at corrosion and cathodic potential were studied with an improved Devanathan–Stachurski electrolytic cell. The above studies on the API 5L X56 submarine pipeline are all influenced by a single factor, and the fatigue remaining life of the pipeline with initial cracks in service is not analyzed.


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This could be early material failure, no doubt. However, is it a systemic problem? If it WERE systemic, we would see people posting pictures and complaints of cracks like these at various attachment and hold down points from all over the truck. More than likely, it's isolated and likely caused by either rough handling or the hood not being properly adjusted. If the latter, then the owner SHOULD have noticed excessive hood flutter and had the issue addressed.

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Where da/dN is plotted against ΔK in log–log axes, and general three regions can be observed in FCG trend. The three regions are named as the fatigue crack (https://kislovoadmin.ru/hack/?patch=8703) initiation (region I), the stable crack growth stage (region II), and the unstable fracture stage (region III). In region I, the SIF is lower than the stress intensity factor threshold, ΔKth, and there is no crack (visit the website) growth. When ΔK exceeds stress intensity factor threshold, it is in region II and the crack begins to grow. It is worth pointing out that the crack growth follows a power law, namely the so-called Paris law, as given in Equation (7) in region II. When ΔK increases to a certain value, it enters region III, where KImax is close to the KIc of the material, and the FCG rate increases sharply until the fracture.

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Two methods for calculating the FCG rate (da/dN) are recommended in GB/T 6398-2000. One is the secant method and the other is the seven-point incremental polynomial method. Considering that the secant method is relatively simple to operate, it is used to calculate the FCG rate in this study.


The purpose of FCG tests is to obtain the material constants C and m of the API 5L X56 pipeline from Paris law and, thus, the relationship between the stress intensity factor range ΔK and the FCG rate da/dN can be determined. The GB/T 6398-2000 and ASTM E647-2021 standards indicate that the shape function can be calculated using Equation (5) for a standard C(T) specimen with a/W ≥ 0/2. However, previous studies in the literature [38,39] pointed out that the shape function solution of the standard C(T) specimen does not follow the equation provided by standards [30,31] for shallow cracks with a/W ≤ 0/4. To reduce the error caused by the shape factor, the shape factor of the standard C(T) specimen is evaluated by numerical simulation before test data processing. The SIFs of cracks with different lengths in the standard C(T) specimens are calculated numerically by using the contour integral technique. The numerical values of the shape function are compared with the results from Equation (5) and the new shape factor proposed in as shown in Figure 5. A shape function calculation equation suitable for this test is proposed.

The predictions show that the predicted values from two equations are smaller than the experimental values, indicating that the predicted results are within the safe life of the cracked (try this) pipeline, and the predictions have guiding significance for the corrosion fatigue life evaluation for pipelines. In addition, it is found that the results predicted by the new equation with the shape factor presented in this study are closer to the experimental values while the predictions based on the shape factor recommended in the standard are too conservative. In summary, through the combination of FCG test and the finite element simulation, fatigue crack growth in a pipeline can be predicted accurately and effectively. It is also worth noting that the fatigue life prediction needs to verify the shape factor equation recommended in the standard to obtain more accurate prediction.


The fatigue crack (https://kislovoadmin.ru/hack/?patch=1950) growth test is the most commonly used method to study the FCG rates of various homogeneous metal (https://kislovoadmin.ru/hack/?patch=3122) materials. The material used in the C(T) specimens is API 5L X56 steel material which is obtained from the submarine pipelines in Bohai sea. Standard compact tension, C(T), specimens are extracted from submarine pipeline with a diameter of 219 mm and a wall thickness of 14 mm. Figure 1a shows that the plane direction of the crack is perpendicular to the axial direction and parallel to the axial direction respectively. Li et al. carried out a load-controlled three-point bending test on API 5L X80 steel material. The results show that the FCG rate of the specimens from different directions are basically the same. In this study, the sampling direction of C(T) specimens is no longer distinguished.

We would appreciate customers contacting us with any suspicionswhether they buy a product or not. As we have pointed out above, thisis not merely a commercial issue – it runs deeply into organizedcrime, people trafficking, unsafe working conditions and environmentaldamage, so reporting and pursuing counterfeiting operations isimportant for society as a whole.


The established finite element model for cracked (get more info) pipeline needs to calculate the SIF values along the crack front. Such SIFs can be used in Pairs law to calculate the crack growth rate and rate ratio in different directions. According to the ratio of the circumferential direction to the radial direction, the circumferential fatigue crack direction of the pipeline can be matched. Depending on the ratio of the radial and the circumferential FCG rates, the length of the cracks along the radial and the circumferential directions can be matched. Because of the stress singularity at the crack tip, a 15-node iso-parametric stress singular element is required for simulating the crack tip using the perimeter integral technique. Except for the crack front region, the other regions are meshed with a 20-node hexahedron. The reduced integration technique is introduced in the calculation process to improve the calculation efficiency. The loading and the boundary conditions in the finite element analysis are as consistent as possible with the testing conditions, and the finite element model of the pipeline are shown in Figure 12.

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In March 2021, after a 2021 United engine failure attributed to fan blade fatigue, the FAA ordered inspections every 6,500 cycles. A cycle is one take-off and landing.


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This British flying boat maiden flight occured the next year (1952). A model during fluid dynamics trials.


Genuine Timberland® boots, shoes and clothing are available throughmany retail channels, not just Timberland® stores. General retailerswon’t have as large a range of products, and will only sell the morepopular styles, but if it’s an authorized seller, they are certainly genuine.

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The FAA said in 2021 that each inspection was expected to take 22 man-hours and cost $1,850. It did not provide updated estimates on Tuesday.


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If you suspect a location or website is offering counterfeitTimberland® branded products, report it to [email protected] Timberlandtakes these matters seriously and investigates any lead that isreported by consumers. We have a moral, ethical and financialincentive to chase up counterfeiters and prosecute any offenders.

The tests are carried out in both air and seawater conditions, and the seawater used in the test is taken from Bohai sea of China where the submarine pipeline is located. C(T) specimens tested in a seawater environment are soaked in seawater for more than 24 hours before precracking. All FCG tests in air and in seawater environments are loaded in a sinusoidal wave form with a stress ratio of 0/1 and a constant amplitude. It is noted here that, even though the applied load ratio experienced by the submarine pipeline may be negative, a previous study in the literatures [32,33,34] has found that the FCG rates at R-ratio of −1/0 is similar or lower than that at R = 0/1 for steel in air and in seawater environments. Therefore, the R-ratio of 0/1 used in this study to characterize the FCG rate is relatively conservative. Previous study indicated that the effect of loading frequency, f, on the fatigue crack growth tests varies from environment to environment . To simulate the actual seawater environment as much as possible and to consider the efficiency problem, the loading frequency in this seawater test environment is 0/5 Hz. Previous studies found that the influence of loading frequency on the FCG rate of steel in the air environment is negligible [34,36,37]. Therefore, FCG test in the air is performed at a frequency of 10 Hz at room temperature. When selecting the maximum load, Pmax, the load should not be too large to guarantee that the crack tip is in the small yielding range to meet the requirements of Linear and Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Simultaneously, the load should not be too small to ensure that ΔK is greater than the stress intensity factor threshold, △Kth.

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Education is almost always trumped by experience. Also, he didn't mention what branch or field his education is in nor how long he has experience in putting his education to work.


Timberland takes the issue of counterfeiting very seriously, and thecompany has an intensive, global Anti-Counterfeiting EnforcementProgram to fight this ongoing problem. This includes training variousgovernment and enforcement agencies worldwide on how to distinguishgenuine Timberland® brand products from counterfeit items.

There are WAY too many variables in this situation to say there is a design defect process going on here. There are lots of guys with well over a hundred thousand miles on their trucks who do hotshot hauling. None of them have posted something like this to my knowledge.


When you see a product carrying the Timberland® brand name, we wantyou to know that that product’s going to stand up to our highstandards – and yours. We’re committed to ensuring that theTimberland® brand remains a symbol of quality and durability. If yoususpect a location or website is offering counterfeit Timberland®products, please report it to [email protected]

Attention owners of Winchester model 100 rifles and carbines please read this notice. In July of 1990 the following product safety warning was issued by Winchester. It has come to our attention that the firing pin in the Winchester Model 100 Rifle or Carbine may break due to use and metal fatigue and become lodged in the breech bolt face. If this occurs, the firearm may fire before the action is locked causing severe damage to the firearm and possibly injury or death to the shooter and bystander.