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Using only wheat bran koji from the Rhizopus strain, raw cassava starch and casava pellets converted reasonably well to alcohol (ethanol) without cooking at 35/sup 0/C and pH 4/5-5/0. When the initial broth contained 30 g raw cassava starch, 10 g Rhizopus sp. koji, and 100 mL tap water, 12/1 g of alcohol was recovered by final distillation from fermented broth. In this case, 12/1 g alcohol corresponds to an 85/5% conversion rate based on the theoretical value of the starch content. When the initial broth contained 40 g cassava starch, 14/1 g of alcohol was recovered, where 14/1 gmore » corresponds to a 74/5% conversion rate.


Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions.

Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent angioedema attacks with the involvement of multiple organs. The disease is unknown to many health professionals and is therefore underdiagnosed. Patients who are not adequately diagnosed and treated have an estimated mortality rate ranging from 25% to 40% due to asphyxiation by laryngeal angioedema. Intestinal angioedema is another important and incapacitating presentation that may be the main or only manifestation during an attack. In this article, a group of experts from the "Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI)" and the "Grupo de Estudos Brasileiro em Angioedema Hereditário (GEBRAEH)" has updated the Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema.


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Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2021, American Society for Microbiology.

The corresponding losses for the control samples, to which no water was added, were ca 25-33%. The biggest reduction in the bound cyanide of > 99% (from 89/0 to 0/6 ppm) occurred in grated cassava with 75% added water held at 50 degrees C. There was little or no change in pH during the period of study. The reduction of processing time for certain cassava products based on separation into detoxication and flavour development/fermentation stages is discussed.


Gibberellin (GA) is an essential plant hormone in plant growth and development as well as various stress responses. DELLA proteins are important repressors of GA signal pathway. GA and DELLA have been extensively investigated in several model plants. However, the in vivo roles of GA and DELLA in cassava, one of the most important crops and energy crops in the tropical area, are unknown. In this study, systematic genome-wide analysis identified 4 MeDELLAs in cassava, as evidenced by the evolutionary tree, gene structures and motifs analyses. Gene expression analysis found that 4 MeDELLAs were commonly regulated by flg22 and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam). Through overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that 4 MeDELLAs conferred improved disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cassava, we found that MeDELLA-silenced plants exhibited decreased disease resistance, with less callose deposition and lower transcript levels of defense-related genes. This is the first study identifying MeDELLAs as positive regulators of disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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Gari, a staple food consumed in Nigeria, is made from peeled and ground cassava tubers. The ground material is pressed with a stone slab for 2-4 days to remove moisture, and the partially fermented product is then baked over an open fire. Since gari mainly contributes energy to the diet, attempts were made to develop a more nutritious product without altering organoleptic and textural properties. In laboratory tests, ground cassava was fermented in stainless steel cheese vats for 4 days (to produce gari flavour) and then partially dehydrated by pressing in cheese cloth. A reduction in HCN content from 6/2more » to 3/4 mg/100 g resulted. Various combinations of spray-dried acid whey, soya protein and freeze-dried Candida tropicalis were added to the fermented cassava, which was then pressure-cooked for 10 minutes at 121 degrees Celcius, dried and ground in a hammer mill. Product (i), made with gari fortified with 15% soya concentrate and 5% dried acid whey, was as acceptable as traditional gari and had a protein score of 75/8 vs. 9/91 for traditional gari. Product (ii), gari fortified with 20% yeast and 10% dried acid whey, had significantly lower scores for flavour and texture than traditional gari and the protein score was only 29/45.


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Therefore this present study was to analyze Michaelis kinetics of extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase and amylase production by L. plantarum during cassava fermentation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and amylase activity of 8/60 U/ml and 14/07 U/ml, respectively, were obtained from filtrate which has been incubated at 37°C for 18 h under stationary conditions. The Vmax and Km of CMCase were 0/8506 × 10-3 U/ml and 0/9594 × 10-3 g/mL, respectively. For amylase were 9/291 × 10-3 U/ml and 0/9163 × 10-3 g/ml, respectively.

Studies about mental disorders are very rare in the Northeast of Brazil, especially when psychopathologies in children and adolescents are considered. The consequence is a small availability of data and an absence of a real epidemiological profile. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol, in the period from 2003 to 2021, using the databases LILACS, SciELO and BVS. The analysis comprised the keywords 'models of primary and secondary healthcare in mental health', 'psychiatric reform' and 'policies and services in mental health', using the Boolean operator '# AND'. Original texts based on secondary data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System were also included via the Citizen Electronic Record System, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, and Ministry of Health. Grey literature was used by means of hand searching. A combined analysis of the strategies mentioned in the analyzed articles shows a combined odds ratio of 1/291 (confidence interval (CI) = 1/054-1/582), thus it demonstrates the efficacy of using such strategies in the elaboration of institutional apparatus in mental health.


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Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available.

Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.


Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0/015-0/02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red ( S. cerevisiae ) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0/5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26/9 ± 1/2 g/L and 86/5 ± 2/1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

No entanto, seus benefícios ainda não foram completamente definidos. Os pontos de divergência entre especialistas incluem questões como: quais pacientes devem receber TXA no trauma? O tratamento deve ser realizado em ambiente pré-hospitalar? Há necessidade de exames laboratoriais para indicar o tratamento? Qual o perfil de segurança da droga? A principal questão para a qual ainda não existe qualquer embasamento na literatura é: qual a indicação do tratamento dentro de protocolos de transfusão maciça? Responder às questões propostas, com base em avaliação crítica da evidência reunida até o momento e realizar estudo de custo-efetividade do uso do TXA no trauma adaptado à realidade brasileira. Foi realizada revisão da literatura através de estratégia de busca: PubMed.com, Embase e no Cab Abstract pelos descritores "tranexamic AND trauma", em todos idiomas, resultando em 426 artigos. Foram excluídos aqueles relativos às operações eletivas, restando 79 artigos. Cinquenta e cinco foram selecionados e avaliados criticamente com vistas a responder às questões em estudo.


Cd Valdeci Aguiar - Jesus Em Primeiro Lugar Mercado Livre

A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

Cassava root is a staple food for almost 500 million people worldwide. Excessive consumption of it is a rare cause of optic neuropathy. Ten patients diagnosed with cassava root related optic neuropathy were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic criteria were a bilateral optic neuropathy preceded by significant cassava root consumption. Differential diagnoses were excluded through a neuro-ophthalmic examination, blood tests and a brain MRI. All patients had visual field examination and OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis as well as an evaluation of their cassava consumption. All patients had a bilateral optic nerve head atrophy or pallor predominantly located into the temporal sector. Visual field defects consisted of a central or cecocentral scotoma for all patients. RNFL showed lower values only in the temporal sector. Mean duration of cassava consumption prior to the appearance of visual symptoms was 22/7±11/2 years with a mean of 2/57±0/53 cassava-based meals per week.


Photo taken at Quiosque Chopp Brahma by Genilton Q. on 1/11/2021

The solid waste of sago industry using cassava was fermented by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer in solid state fermentation. Cassava waste contained 52 per cent starch and 2/9 per cent protein by dry weight. The amylase activity was maintained at a high level and the highest amylase activity was observed on the 8th day in R. stolonifer mediated fermentation. R. stolonifer was more efficient than Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus in bioconverting cassava waste into fungal protein (90/24 mg/g) by saccharifying 70% starch and releasing 44/5% reducing sugars in eight days of solid state fermentation.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) protoplast was analyzed by using isoelectric focusing techniques. Two populations, representing 68 and 32% of the total sample, with mean isoelectric points of 4/48 and 4/60, were obtained using mesophyll protoplasts. The use of this technique allows demonstration of a discontinuous distribution of protoplast isoelectric point from one species according to their surface potential.


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Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2021. Estudo descritivo que avaliou os dados da PNS de 2021, um inquérito epidemiológico de base domiciliar, representativo para o Brasil, com informações autorreferidas. A amostra compreendeu 60/202 indivíduos entrevistados com autorrelato de diagnóstico médico de colesterol. Calculou-se a prevalência de ponto e o intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para diagnóstico médico de colesterol/triglicerídeos alto(s) por sexo, idade, cor da pele, região geográfica, escolaridade. Foram calculadas as razões de chance ajustadas. Dos 60/202 participantes adultos, 14,3% (IC95%=13,7-14,8) nunca tiveram colesterol ou triglicerídeos dosados, sendo que um maior número de mulheres, idosos, indivíduos com instrução superior completa e de raça branca relatou aferição há menos de um ano. A prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto foi de 12,5%, maior nas mulheres (15,1%) do que nos homens (9,7%). A frequência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto foi maior naqueles com idade até 59 anos, em brancos ou aqueles de origem asiática, em pessoas com maior escolaridade e entre os moradores das macrorregiões Sul e Sudeste do país. A importância do conhecimento da dislipidemia no atual contexto epidemiológico brasileiro deve ser ressaltada para orientar as ações de prevenção das doenças coronarianas, que representam a primeira causa de óbito no Brasil e no mundo.

To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2021. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0/05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3/19-5/45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1/154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2021.


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A newly isolated strain Penicillium sp. GXU20 produced a raw starch-degrading enzyme which showed optimum activity towards raw cassava starch at pH 4/5 and 50 °C. Maximum raw cassava starch-degrading enzyme (RCSDE) activity of 20 U/ml was achieved when GXU20 was cultivated under optimized conditions using wheat bran (3/0% w/v) and soybean meal (2/5% w/v) as carbon and nitrogen sources at pH 5/0 and 28 °C. This represented about a sixfold increment as compared with the activity obtained under basal conditions. Starch hydrolysis degree of 95% of raw cassava flour (150 g/l) was achieved after 72 h of digestion by crude RCSDE (30 U/g flour). Ethanol yield reached 53/3 g/l with fermentation efficiency of 92% after 48 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw cassava flour at 150 g/l using the RCSDE (30 U/g flour), carried out at pH 4/0 and 40 °C. This strain and its RCSDE have potential applications in processing of raw cassava starch to ethanol.

Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true.


Quiosque chopp brahma cuiabá •

Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity) and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77%) constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46%) and arabinose (40%). Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances.

Pectinase production from Bacillus subtilis SS was optimized under solid-state fermentation (5,943 U/g of dry bacterial bran). The pectinase produced was stable in neutral to alkaline pH range at 70 degrees C; therefore, the suitability of this pectinase in pulp and paper industry was investigated. The enzyme pretreatment process was optimized, and a pectinase dose of 5 IU/g of oven-dried pulp (10% consistency) at pH 9/5 temperature 70 degrees C after 150 min of treatment gave the best pretreatment to the pulp. An increase of 4/3% in brightness along with an increase of 14/8 and 65/3% in whiteness and fluorescence, respectively, whereas a 15% decrease in the yellowness of the pretreated pulp were observed. There was a 5/85% reduction in kappa number and 6/1% reduction in permanganate number along with a reduction in the chemical oxygen demand value. Significant characteristics showed by pectinase open new possibilities of application of this cellulase-free enzyme in the pulp and paper industry by reducing the negative environmental impact of chemicals apart from improving the properties of paper.


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The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a “core” and a “variable” part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations (“core” yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations (“variable” yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

Candida tropicalis grows on soluble starch, corn, and cassava powders without requiring that these substrates be previously hydrolyzed. C. tropicalis possesses the enzyme needed to hydrolyze starch, namely, an α-amylase. That property has been used to develop a fermentation process whereby C. tropicalis can be grown directly on corn or cassava powders so that the resultant mixture of biomass and residual corn or cassava contains about 20% protein, which represents a balanced diet for either animal fodder or human food. The fact that no extra enzymes are required to hydrolyze starch results in a particularly efficient way of improving the nutritional value of amylaceous products, through a single-step fermentation process.


High-quality protein roughage is an important feed for productive ruminants. This study examined the effects of strategic feeding of lactating cows with cassava (Manihot esculenta) top silage (CTS) on rumen fermentation, feed intake, milk yield, and quality. Four early lactating crossbred dairy cows (75% Holstein-Friesian and 25% Thai) with body weight (BW) 410 ± 30 kg and milk yield 12 ± 2 kg/day were randomly allotted in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to four different supplementation levels of CTS namely, 0, 0/75, 1/50, and 2/25 kg/day of dry matter (DM). Strategic supplementation of CTS significantly affected ruminal fermentation end-products, especially increased propionate production, decreased protozoal population and suppressed methane production (P fermentation end-products, milk yield, and quality in dairy cows.

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A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7/0, 70% and 50°C, respectively for optimum exo-PG production.


Raw cassava root starch was transformed into ethanol in a one-step process of fermentation, in which are combined the conventional processes of liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation to alcohol. Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 and Aspergillus niger were cultivated on wheat bran and used as Koji enzymes. Commercial A. niger amyloglucosidase was also used in this experiment. A raw cassava root homogenate-enzymes-yeast mixture fermented optimally at pH 3/5 and 30/degree/C, for five days and produced ethanol. Alcohol yields from raw cassava roots were between 82/3 and 99/6%. Fungal Koji enzymes effectively decreased the viscosity of cassava root fermentation mashes during incubation. Commercialmore » A. niger amyloglucosidase decreased the viscosity slightly. Reduction of viscosity of fermentation mashes was 40, 84, and 93% by commercial amyloglucosidase, A. awamori, and A. niger enzymes, respectively.

Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research.


A hybrid composite was prepared from cassava bagasse (CB) and sugar palm fiber (SPF) using casting technique with cassava starch (CS) as matrix and fructose as a plasticizer. Different loadings of SPF (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w of dry starch) were added to the CS/CB composite film containing 6% CB. The addition of SPF significantly influenced the physical properties. It increased the thickness while decreasing the density, water content, water solubility and water absorption. However, no significant effect was noticed on the thermal properties of the hybrid composite film. The incorporation of SPF increased the relative crystallinity up to 47%, compared to 32% of the CS film. SEM micrographs indicated that the filler was incorporated in the matrix. The film with a higher concentration of SPF (CS-CB/SPF8) showed a more heterogeneous surface. It could be concluded that the incorporation of SPF led to changes in cassava starch film properties, potentially affecting the film performances.

This study focused on the process development for the d-lactic acid production from cellulosic feedstocks using the Lactobacillus plantarum mutant, genetically modified to produce optically pure d-lactic acid from both glucose and xylose. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using delignified hardwood pulp (5-15% loads) resulted in the lactic acid titers of 55/2-84/6g/L after 72h and increased productivities of 1/77-2/61g/L/h. To facilitate the enzymatic saccharification of high-load pulp at a fermentation temperature, short-term (⩽10min) pulverization of pulp was conducted, leading to a significantly improved saccharification with the suppressed formation of formic acid by-product. The short-term milling followed by SSF resulted in a lactic acid titer of 102/3g/L, an optical purity of 99/2%, and a yield of 0/879g/g-sugars without fed-batch process control. Therefore, the process presented here shows promise for the production of high-titer d-lactic acid using the L. plantarum mutant.


The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed.

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The mean time to publish was 15/00±13/75 months. In total, there were 4/93±1/63 authors per abstract and 67/8±163 subjects per abstract; 43/5% of the abstracts were of retrospective studies; 69% comprised the plastic surgery topics head and neck, and chest and trunk, and 88/5% had no statistical analysis. Overall, 80% of the manuscripts were published in plastic surgery journals, 76% had no impact factor and 52% had no citations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed the presence of statistical analysis to be the most significant (pBrasileiros de Cirurgia Plástica foram avaliados por meio de referências cruzadas em diversos bancos de dados.


Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6/9-9/1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14/4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1/6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7/5 to 5/3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1/2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7/4 to 9/13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4/81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4/54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

The frequency of cassava consumption was investigated among three groups of people representing students from traditional and nontraditional cassava-consuming environments and cassava processors. Of these, 64% of the students at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 38% of those at the Federal University of Technology, Akure, and 44% of the cassava processors consumed cassava products at least once a day, while 4, 35, and 28% of the groups, respectively, were moderate consumers (4-6 times a week). The serum thiocyanate level of the processors was significantly higher (0/57 mg/dl) than those of the students (0/38 mg/dl), but there was no significant difference in the urinary thiocyanate level of the three groups.


We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5/1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

Based on 16S rRNA sequence comparison, we have designed a 20-mer oligonucleotide that targets a region specific to the species Lactobacillus manihotivorans recently isolated from sour cassava fermentation. The probe recognized the rRNA obtained from all the L. manihotivorans strains tested but did not recognize 56 strains of microorganisms from culture collections or directly isolated from sour cassava, including 29 species of lactic acid bacteria. This probe was then successfully used in quantitative RNA blots and demonstrated the importance of L. manihotivorans in the fermentation of sour cassava starch, which could represent up to 20% of total lactic acid bacteria.


Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration. © 2021 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease.


The percentage utilization of reducing sugars during fermentation (48 h) was also the highest (91/02, 87/16 and 89/71%, respectively, for stems, leaves and peels) for the MW-assisted alkali-pretreated (D+) systems. HPLC sugar profile indicated that glucose was the predominant monosaccharide in the hydrolysates from this system. Highest ethanol yields ( Y E, g/g), fermentation efficiency (%) and volumetric ethanol productivity (g/L/h) of 0/401, 78/49 and 0/449 (stems), 0/397, 77/71 and 0/341 (leaves) and 0/433, 84/65 and 0/518 (peels) were also obtained for this system. The highest ethanol yields (ml/kg dry biomass) of ca. 263, 200 and 303, respectively, for stems, leaves and peels from the MW-assisted alkali pretreatment (D+) indicated that this was the most effective pretreatment for cassava residues.

Thaina Aguiar/Cabelereira - @jesusthaina

Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6/0 and 9/0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5/0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories.


The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia. In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource. This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system.

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An immobilized fermentation system, using cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) and mixed alkalis, was developed to achieve economical succinic acid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. The C. glutamicum strains were immobilized in porous polyurethane filler (PPF). CBH was used efficiently as a carbon source instead of more expensive glucose. Moreover, as a novel method for regulating pH, the easily decomposing NaHCO3 was replaced by mixed alkalis (NaOH and Mg(OH)2) for succinic acid production by C. glutamicum. Using CBH and mixed alkalis in the immobilized batch fermentation system, succinic acid productivity of 0/42gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained from 35gL(-1) glucose of CBH, which is similar to that obtained with conventional free-cell fermentation with glucose and NaHCO3. In repeated batch fermentation, an average of 22/5gL(-1) succinic acid could be obtained from each batch, which demonstrated the enhanced stability of the immobilized C. glutamicum cells.

The SIRGAS-CON-C network is processed by DGFI (Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut, Germany) as the IGS-RNAAC-SIR. The Local Processing Centres are for the Northern sub-network IGAC (Instituto Geográfico Augustín Codazzi, Colombia), for the middle sub-network IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estátistica, Brazil), and for the Southern sub-network IGG-CIMA (Instituto de Geodesia y Geodinámica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina).


Juan Jesús Aguiar Rodriguez - @aguiarrodriguezjuanjesus

Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

Breeding efforts have focused on improving agronomic traits of the cassava plant however little research has been done to enhance the crop palatability. This review investigates the links between cassava traits and end-user preference in relation with sensory characteristics. The main trait is starch and its composition related to the textural properties of the food. Pectin degradation during cooking resulted in increased mealiness. Nutritional components such as carotenoids made the cassava yellow but also altered sweetness and softness; however, yellow cassava was more appreciated by consumers than traditional (white) varieties. Components formed during processing such as organic acids gave fermented cassava products an acidic taste that was appreciated but the fermented smell was not always liked. Anti-nutritional compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides were mostly related to bitter taste. Post-harvest Physiological Deterioration (PPD) affected the overall sensory characteristics and acceptability. Genes responsible for some of these traits were also investigated. Diversity in cassava food products can provide a challenge to identifying acceptance criteria.


Jesus Ernesto Aguiar - @jesuseaguiar

Thus, the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 proves to be viable as a triage instrument in the primary health care that identifies frail older adults (older adults at risk of weakening and frail older adults). Avaliar a adequação do Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico-Funcional-20, instrumento de triagem rápida de vulnerabilidade em idosos brasileiros, para utilização pela atenção básica. O estudo incluiu amostra de conveniência de 397 pacientes com idade maior ou igual a 60 anos atendidos em um Centro de Referência para o Idoso e de 52 idosos da mesma idade atendidos na comunidade. Os resultados do questionário, constituído por 20 perguntas, foram comparados com aqueles da Avaliação Geriátrica Ampla, considerada referência para identificação do idoso frágil. Foi avaliada a correlação de Spearman do Índice de Vulnerabilidade Clínico-Funcional-20 com a Avaliação Geriátrica Ampla; a validade foi verificada pela área sob a curva ROC; a confiabilidade foi estimada pelo percentual de concordância entre avaliadores e coeficiente kappa, ambos com ponderação quadrática. Obteve-se ponto de corte com base no critério de maior acurácia. O alfa de Cronbach, medida de consistência interna, foi calculado.

In a number of energy-poor nations, peel from cassava processing represents one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This peel is mostly discarded indiscriminately and eventually constitutes a problem to the environment. However, energy can be extracted from this peel in a microbial fuel cell. In this study, the viability of cassava peel extract as a substrate in a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell is demonstrated, and optimum performance conditions are explored. The effects of different pretreatments on the extract are also discussed in the context of observed changes in the internal resistances, conductivity and Coulombic efficiencies.

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Research into fermentative production of lactic acid from agricultural by-products has recently concentrated on the direct conversion of biomass, whereby pure sugars are replaced with inexpensive feedstock in the process of lactic acid production. In our studies, for the first time, the source of carbon used is sugar beet pulp, generated as a by-product of industrial sugar production. In this paper, we focus on the simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of lactic acid, using mixed cultures with complementary assimilation profiles. Lactic acid is one of the primary platform chemicals, and can be used to synthesize a wide variety of useful products, including green propylene glycol. A series of controlled batch fermentations was conducted under various conditions, including pretreatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Inoculation was performed in two sequential stages, to avoid carbon catabolite repression. Biologically-synthesized lactic acid was catalytically reduced to propylene glycol over 5% Ru/C. The highest lactic acid yield was obtained with mixed cultures. The yield of propylene glycol from the biological lactic acid was similar to that obtained with a water solution of pure lactic acid. Our results show that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation enables generation of lactic acid, suitable for further chemical transformations, from agricultural residues.


Looking on African perspective in space agriculture may contribute to increase diversity, and enforce robustness for advanced life support capability. Cassava, Manihot esculentaand, is one of major crop in Africa, and could be a candidate of space food materials. Since resource is limited for space agriculture in many aspects, crop yield should be high in efficiency, and robust as well. The efficiency is measured by farming space and time. Harvest yield of cassava is about 41 MJ/ m2 (70 ton/ha) after 11 months of farming. Among rice, wheat, potato, and sweet potato, cassava is ranked to the first place (40 m2 ) in terms of farming area required to supply energy of 5 MJ/day, which is recommended for one person. Production of cassava could be made under poor condition, such as acidic soil, shortage of fertilizer, draught. Laterite, similar to Martian regolith. Propagation made by stem cutting is an advantage of cassava in space agriculture avoiding entomophilous or anemophilous process to pollinate. Feature of crop storage capability is additional factor that determines the efficiency in the whole process of agriculture.

Two agricultural wastes, rice bran and cassava pulp were subjected to acidic hydrolysis by 2 M sulfuric acid which resulted in hemicellulosic oligosaccharide mixtures. Monosaccharide component analysis of these mixtures revealed that the oligosaccharides of rice bran acid hydrolysate (RAHF) composed of glucose and arabinose while cassava pulp acid hydrolysate (CAHF) was found to be comprised of glucose, galactose and arabinose. Both RAHF and CAHF were able to fuel all of the tested three Lactobacillus, five Bifidobacterium and three Bacteroides strains indicating the prebiotic potential of these oligosaccharide mixtures. Moreover, Lb. gasseri grew significantly better on RAHF than on inulin, a benchmark prebiotic oligo- and polysaccharide mixture. When the digestibility of RAHF and CAHF were tested it was found that these oligosaccharide mixtures were only slightly hydrolyzed upon exposure to simulated human gastric (by less than 8%) and pancreatic juices (by less than 3%). Additionally, most sensory attributes of the above obtained oligosaccharide mixtures supplemented two model cereal drink formulations were generally not different from those of the control, while the overall acceptance was not affected significantly in one cereal drink formulation.


Aguiar Jesus Aguiar - Facebook

When the solar X-ray flux in the interplanetary medium reaches values above a certain threshold, some undesired effects affecting radio communications are expected. Basically, the magnitudes of these effects depend on the X-ray peak brightness and duration, which drive the intensity of the ionosphere response when the associated electromagnetic wave hit the sunlit side of the Earth atmosphere. An important aspect defining the severity of damages to HF radio communications and LF navigation signals in a certain area is the local time when each event takes place. In order to create more accurate warnings referred to possible radio signal loss or degradation in the Brazilian sector, we analyze TEC maps obtained by a GPS network, formed by dual-frequency receivers spread all over the country, to observe ionospheric local changes during several X-ray events in the 0/1-0/8 nm range measured by GOES satellite. Considering the duration, peak brightness, and local time of the events, the final purpose of this study is to understand and predict the degree of changes suffered by the ionosphere during these X-ray bursts. We intend using these results to create a radio blackout warning product to be offered by the Brazilian space weather program named EMBRACE (Estudo e Monitoramento BRAsileiro do Clima Espacial): Brazilian Monitoring and Study of Space Weather.

Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the composition, physical and chemical structures, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and modifications of cassava starch. Research opportunities to better understand this starch are provided.


However, Seq-I of W. saturnus significantly enhanced the survival of L. casei and improved the utilization of fructose and glucose compared to L. casei monoculture. In addition, there were significant differences in the metabolism of organic acids especially for lactic acid and succinic acid. Furthermore, Seq-I produced significantly higher levels of volatile compounds including alcohols (ethanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol) and acetate esters (2-phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate), which would positively contribute to the flavour notes. Although the initial volatile sulphur compounds were reduced to trace levels after fermentation, but the durian odour still remained. This study suggests that the use of probiotics and W. saturnus to ferment durian pulp could act as a potential avenue to develop a novel non-dairy durian-based functional beverage to deliver probiotics.

Bressani, E. Guia do Barista. Da origem do café ao espresso perfeito.


The objective of this study has been to evaluate the performance of the primary care of Brazilian municipalities in relation to health actions and outcomes. This is an evaluative, cross-sectional research, with a quantitative approach, aimed at the identification of the efficiency frontier of the primary care in health actions and outcomes in Brazilian municipalities. Secondary data have been collected from the Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care) and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System, in 2021. The data envelopment analysis tool has been used for variable returns to scale with product orientation. Municipalities have been analyzed by population size, and small municipalities have presented a high percentage of inefficiency for both models. The analysis of efficiency has indicated the existence of a higher percentage of effective municipalities in the model of health actions than in the model of health outcomes. Avaliar o desempenho da atenção básica dos municípios brasileiros quanto a ações e resultados em saúde. Pesquisa avaliativa, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, para identificar a fronteira de eficiência da atenção básica em ações e resultados em saúde nos municípios brasileiros. Foi realizada coleta de dados secundários a partir do Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da qualidade da Atenção Básica e do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, no ano de 2021. Utilizou-se a ferramenta análise envoltória de dados para retornos variáveis de escala com orientação para produto.

Jesus Ernesto Aguiar Tostado - @JesuseAguiar

Bioethanol, an alcohol produced by fermentation of plant biomass containing starch and sugars by micro-organisms, considered as a dominant form of fuel for future. Production of this renewable fuel, especially from starchy materials such as tuber crops, holds a remarkable potential to meet the future energy demand because of its high production and comparitively less demand for use as food and fodder. This review focuses on the world bioethanol production scenario from various tuber crops, namely cassava, sweet potato, potato, yam, aroids, sugar beet, etc, fermentation techniques and micro-organisms used in fermentation process along with its future prospects. The advances in metabolic pathway engineering and genetic engineering techniques have led to the development of micro-organisms capable of efficiently converting biomass sugars into ethanol. Several biotechnological tools that are also available for the improvement of microorganisms to meet the harsh environments typically met with certain industrial fermentation process are also discussed.


Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0/2-5/8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

Enzymatic hydrolysis, optimized through response surface methodology for 1 g:4 mL solid/liquid ratio and 24/8 FPU/g cellulose enzyme loading, resulted in 140 g L -1 total reducing sugar and 110 g L -1 glucose after 48 h, leading to 61 % of efficiency. In instrumented bioreactor, 57 g L -1 of D(-)-lactic acid was achieved in 20 h of fermentation, while only 0/5 g L -1 of L(+)-lactic acid was generated. Furthermore, product yield of 0/97 g/g and volumetric productivity of 2/8 g L -1  h -1 were obtained.


Discusses the feasibility of using fermenters in secondary school laboratories. Includes discussions of equipment, safety, and computer interfacing. Describes how a simple fermenter could be used to simulate large-scale processes.

Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate was most closely related to Lysinibacillus meyeri WS 4626T (98/93%), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus XDB9T (96/95%) and Lysinibacillus odysseyi 34hs-1T (96/94%). The DNA-DNA relatedness of the isolate with L. meyeri LMG 26643T, L. xylanilyticus DSM 23493T and L. odysseyi DSM 18869T was 41%, 16% and 15%, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer-PCR profile of the isolate was different from those of closely related bacteria. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4α, L-Lys-D-Asp and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C17:0 and iso-C17:1ω10c. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid, aminolipid, two phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6. Ribose was the only whole-cell sugar detected. The DNA G+C content was 38 mol%.


Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

Fábio De Jesus Aguiar - @fabiodejesusaguiar

Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass.


The regions suitable for growing cassava include five provinces in Southern China, with Guangxi alone accounting for over 65% of the total cassava production in the country. In this article, the state-of-the-art development of fuel ethanol production from cassava in China is illustrated by the construction of the cassava fuel ethanol plant with its annual production capacity of 200 000 metric tons. And in the meantime, problems and challenges encountered in the development of China's cassava fuel ethanol are highlighted and the strategies to address them are proposed.

The aim of the study was to assess the levels of true retention in trans-β-carotene during gari processing and investigate the causes of low retention. Influence of processing step, processor (3 commercial processors) and variety (TMS 01/1371; 01/1368 and 01/1412) were assessed.


Adriana Aguiar - Facebook

To characterize the Brazilian workers victims of occupational accidents with biological fluids. Epidemiological and descriptive research, in which 284,877 notifications of the Notifiable Diseases Information System were analyzed between 2007 and 2021. We used Stata 13 for data analysis. The highest incidence density occurred in females with 0/8 cases per 1,000 workers/year (n = 222,042, 77/9%); in the age group of 20 to 24 years old, with 0/6 cases per 1,000 workers/year (n = 64,221, 23/3%); with some high school and some college, with 0/6 cases per 1,000 workers/year (n = 141,275, 49/6%). We found that these accidents occurred among 23 occupational subgroups. For the most part, the workers had an employment relationship and had issued the Occupational Accident Notification. It is necessary to rethink the measures of orientation to workers regarding the risks and relative prophylaxis for these accidents, with the aim of reducing them. Caracterizar os trabalhadores brasileiros vítimas de acidente de trabalho com fluidos biológicos. Pesquisa epidemiológica, descritiva, na qual foram analisadas 284/877 notificações do Sistema Nacional de Notificação de Agravos, entre 2007 e 2021. Utilizou-se Stata 13 para a análise dos dados.

Studies have been conducted in a gas circulation type fermentor in order to characterize the ethanol fermentation of uncooked cassava starch with Rhizopus koji. Results showed that ethanol concentration reached 13-14% (v/v) in 4-day broth, and the maximum productivity of ethanol was 2/3 g ethanol/l broth h. This productivity was about 50% compared to the productivity of a glucose-yeast system. Ethanol yield reached 83/5-72/3% of the theoretical yield for the cassava starch used.


Anaerobic sludges, pretreated by chloroform, base, acid, heat and loading-shock, as well as untreated sludge were evaluated for their thermophilic fermentative hydrogen-producing characters from cassava stillage in both batch and continuous experiments. Results showed that the highest hydrogen production was obtained by untreated sludge and there were significant differences (pfermentation process. When the influent was adjusted to pH 6 by NaHCO(3) instead of NaOH, the hydrogen yield increased from about 40 to 52mlH(2)/gVS in all the experiments. Therefore, pretreatment of anaerobic sludge is unnecessary for practical thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage.

To evaluate the influence of social inequalities of individual and contextual nature on untreated dental caries in Brazilian children. The data on the prevalence of dental caries were obtained from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2021) Project, an epidemiological survey of oral health with a representative sample for the country and each of the geographical micro-regions. Children aged five (n = 7,217) in 177 municipalities were examined and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire. Contextual characteristics referring to the municipalities in 2021 (mean income, fluorodized water and proportion of residences with water supply) were supplied by the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Multilevel Poisson regression analysis models were used to assess associations. The prevalence of non-treated dental caries was 48/2%; more than half of the sample had at least one deciduous tooth affected by dental caries. The index of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 2/41, with higher figures in the North and Northeast. Black and brown children and those from lower income families had a higher prevalence of untreated dental caries. With regards context, the mean income in the municipality and the addition of fluoride to the water supply were inversely associated with the prevalence of the outcome. Inequalities in the prevalence of untreated dental caries remain, affecting deciduous teeth of children in Brazil.


Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35/5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78/8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81/6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3/7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10/27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

Cassava leaves are nutritious vegetable, but often regarded as an inferior commodity. One of the efforts increasing in the benefit of cassava leaves is through processing it into snack. In order to support the food diversification program and to reduce the dependence on imported commodities, the development of cassava leaves snack could be accompanied by optimizing the use of local materials to minimize the use of wheat flour. The aim of this assessment was to learn the effects of cassava and corn flour substitution on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of local flour (cassava and corn) on the snack production was carried on three levels at 15, 30, and 45%. A control treatment was using 100% wheat flour. The results showed that cassava and corn flour were potential to substitute wheat flour for making cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of cassava and corn flour as much as 45% was able to produce crispy products with a brighter color. The substitution of corn flour was resulting in snacks with the lower content of lipid than the other substitution snacks.


A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3/5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

Padre Juarez de Castro

Sun drying experiments were performed to compare drying of cassava chips in sheet-metal trays with drying on mesh wire trays. In the sheet-metal trays, there was air flow across the top of the bed chips, while the mesh wire trays permitted air to flow through the bed. Drying rate was faster and more uniform in the trays with through-flow air circulation. Higher temperatures were reached by chips in the sheet-metal trays than those in the mesh trays because of contact heating, but the drying rate was lower because of the reduced air flow.


Jesus Aguiar - @jgaguiar16

We compared this results with a modified Nagoya TEC calculation method used by the EMBRACE (Estudo e Monitoramento BRAsileiro do Clima Espacial - Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather) program. This work intends to follow the performance of different TEC tuning methods to evaluate the spurious effects of the ionospheric EIA gradients in the TEC determination under typical conditions of the low-latitudes ionosphere in the Brazilian sector. The calculated TEC under different solar cycle conditions, geomagnetic activity, and seasonal variations show deviations in the performance of each method and stress the importance of well adjust the GNSS observations to local conditions in order to optimize the TEC evaluation. This study contributes to a better understanding of local GNSS signal errors in the global intent of offering conditions to improve the accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity requirements for the use of GNSS for air navigation in South America.

Jésus Aguiar - @jesus_aguiaraguiar

In this work, a series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, fermentation time, and inoculums ratio to hydrogen production using cassava starch as a substrate. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. It was fouund that the suitable fermentation conditions of biohydrogen production should be at temperature 40 ° C; pH 6/5, inoculums to medium ratio 10 % and COD operation at 4800 g/mL. The maximum value of hydrogen volume produced was 76/22 mL. These affected has been evaluated and the result can be used as an reference for the pilot or industrial biohydrogen production.


Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7/3 million tons in 2021) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies. Data boundaries were restricted to a gate-to-gate scenario with a receiving capacity of 500 t WCP/d, and based on a new production unit being set up at the starch factory. The total production cost of each WCP utilization option was analyzed from the economic and environmental costs. Fermented animal feed was an economically attractive scenario, giving a higher net present value (NPV), lower investment cost and environmental impact, and a shorter payback period for the 10-year operational period. The selling price of mushrooms was the most sensitive parameter regarding the NPV, while the NPV for the price of fermented animal feed had the highest value in the best-case scenario.

Investigar se características da estrutura das unidades básicas de saúde e do processo de trabalho das equipes de atenção básica estão associadas ao número de internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária. Neste estudo ecológico, foram analisados dados de municípios brasileiros relativos a características sociodemográficas, de cobertura de programas assistenciais, de estrutura das unidades básicas de saúde e processo de trabalho das equipes de atenção básica. Os dados foram obtidos do primeiro ciclo do Programa de Melhoria do Acesso e Qualidade da Atenção Básica, do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e do Programa das Nações Unidas. Estimaram-se as associações por meio de coeficientes de regressão binomial negativa (β) e respectivos intervalos de confiança a 95%, com abordagem hierarquizada em três blocos (alpha = 5%).


Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life.

Saccharification of cassava pulp at an initial solid of 16% (w/v) in a bench-scale bioreactor resulted in 736/4 mg glucose/g, which is equivalent to 82/92% glucose yield based on the total starch and glucan in the substrate, after 96 h at 40 °C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the uncooked enzymatic process led to a final ethanol concentration of 6/98% w/v, equivalent to 96/7% theoretical yield based on the total starch and cellulose content. The results demonstrated potential of the enzyme for low-energy processing of cassava pulp in biofuel industry.


A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio eletrônico, em instrumento construído pelo programa SurveyMonkey, que continha título, definição e 19 fatores de risco para o diagnóstico de enfermagem. Os dados foram analisados pelo método de Fehring e pela estatística descritiva.

Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated.


Lee Seung Chul Songs

Propagation through stem cuttings encourages the spread of many virus diseases, such as cassava mosaic virus. This paper reports on procedures for regenerating cassava plants from the apical meristems.

To assess the coverage of the fluoridation of the public water supply in Brazilian municipalities at the first decade of the 21st century, according to population size and municipal human development index (MHDI). We have used data produced by national information agencies and the United Nations Development Programme. Population size was separated into 50,000 inhabitants. The MHDI was classified into 0/799. Absolute and relative inequalities between categories were evaluated using indicators of effect and total impact. We have obtained information for 5,558 municipalities. The coverage rate of water fluoridation increased from 67/7% to 76/3%. Approximately 884 (15/9%) municipalities and 29,600,000 inhabitants started being benefited by the measure. We have observed a significant expansion in municipalities with brasileiros na primeira década do século XXI, segundo porte demográfico e nível de desenvolvimento humano municipal (IDH-M). Foram utilizados dados produzidos por agências nacionais de informação e pelo Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento.


Para concretizacao destes objetivos foram desenvolvidas e aplicadas metodologias inovadoras de processamento de dados de detecao remota, assim como novas implementacoes estuarinas e costeiras de modelos numericos. Atraves de imagens MODIS, otimizadas para o estudo de fenomenos costeiros, efetuou-se uma detecao rigorosa da pluma. Identificou-se uma relacao entre o sinal turbido nLw555 e o caudal, demonstrando-se este produto como um bom proxy para a observacao da pluma no oceano. As escalas temporais e espaciais da pluma foram caraterizadas atraves destas imagens, combinadas com dados de caudal fluvial, mare, vento e precipitacao, e tambem com indices climaticos relevantes. Para compreender a propagacao da pluma e caracterizar a sua dinâmica e impacto na circulacao costeira, foi desenvolvida uma aplicacao 3D de modelos estuarinos e costeiros com malhas aninhadas de resolucao variavel. Definiramse e analisaram-se diferentes cenarios de vento e descarga fluvial. A interacao da pluma do Rio Douro e do Minho foi ainda analisada atraves dos resultados de simulacoes baseadas num evento de inverno.

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All A large amount of cassava peel waste is generated annually by small and medium scale industries. This has led to a new policy of complete utilization of raw materials so that there will be little or no residue left that could pose pollution problems. Conversion of these by-products into a material that poses an ability to remove toxic pollutant would increase the market value and ultimately benefits the producers. This study investigated the characteristics of cassava peel as a coagulant aid material and optimization process using the cassava peel was explored through coagulation and flocculation. This research had highlighted that the Cassava peels contain sugars in the form of polysaccharides such as starch and holocellulose. The FTIR results revealed that amino acids containing abundant of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups which has significant capabilities in removing pollutants. Whereas analysis by XRF spectrometry indicated that the CP samples contain Fe2O3 and Al2O3 which might contribute to its coagulation ability.


Background Cassava starch is considered as a potential source for the commercial production of bioethanol because of its availability and low market price. It can be used as a basic source to support large-scale biological production of bioethanol using microbial amylases. With the progression and advancement in enzymology, starch liquefying and saccharifying enzymes are preferred for the conversion of complex starch polymer into various valuable metabolites. These hydrolytic enzymes can selectively cleave the internal linkages of starch molecule to produce free glucose which can be utilized to produce bioethanol by microbial fermentation. Results In the present study, several filamentous fungi were screened for production of amylases and among them Aspergillus fumigatus KIBGE-IB33 was selected based on maximum enzyme yield. Maximum α-amylase, amyloglucosidase and glucose formation was achieved after 03 days of fermentation using cassava starch. After salt precipitation, fold purification of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase increased up to 4/1 and 4/2 times with specific activity of 9/2 kUmg-1 and 393 kUmg-1, respectively. Concentrated amylolytic enzyme mixture was incorporated in cassava starch slurry to give maximum glucose formation (40/0 gL-1), which was further fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae into bioethanol with 84/0% yield. The distillate originated after recovery of bioethanol gave 53/0% yield. Conclusion An improved and effective dual enzymatic starch degradation method is designed for the production of bioethanol using cassava starch.

Jesus Aguilar - @_blaze_jesus_ - Instagram

Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.


Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth.

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The cerrados of Brazil cover 2 million km2. Despite the extent of these seasonally dry ecosystems, little watershed research has been focused in this region, particularly relative to the watersheds of the Amazon Basin. The cerrado shares pedogenic characteristics with the Amazon Basin in draining portions of the Brazilian shield and in possessing Oxisols over much of the landscape. The objective of this research was to quantify the stream water geochemical relationships of an undisturbed 1200 ha cerrado watershed for comparison to river geochemistry in the Amazon. Furthermore, this undisturbed watershed was used to evaluate stream discharge versus dissolved ion concentration relationships. This research was conducted in the Córrego Roncador watershed of the Reserva Ecológica do Roncador (RECOR) of the Instituto Brasileiro Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) near Brasilia, Brazil. Bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry were analysed between May 1998 and May 2000. The upland soils of this watershed are nutrient poor possessing total stocks of exchangeable elements in the upper 1 m of 81 +/- 13, 77 +/- 4, 25 +/- 3, and 1 +/- 1 kg ha-1 of K, Ca, Mg, and P, respectively. Bulk precipitation inputs of dissolved nutrients for this watershed are low and consistent with previous estimates. The nutrient-poor soils of this watershed, however, increase the relative importance of precipitation for nutrient replenishment to vegetation during episodes of ecosystem disturbance.

Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66/52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79/75 g/L ethanol with a 78/3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137/11 and 87/71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55/36 and 32/16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178/52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69/73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166/07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. © 2021 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Jesus Aguilar could be living in Payson, Provo, Salt Lake City or 2 other places in Utah

This article describes the pathological observations of Dioctophyma renale in dogs from the northern region of the State of ParanÃ, Brazil. A female, 6-year-old dog, Fila Brasileiro breed and a 16-year-old, male Poodle were diagnosed positive for D. renale during routine necropsy. Clinically, both dogs demonstrated hematuria, and the Poodle had a radiographic diagnosis of prostatic tumor, but neither had a clinical diagnosis of this infection prior to necropsy. Three giant worms were observed in the urinary bladder of the first case and one within the renal pelvis of the other dog. Histological findings were similar in both cases and represented compressive atrophy due to the presence of the nematode. Additionally, aspects of the life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology associated with this parasitism in Brazil are also discussed.

Cassava cellulose accounts for one quarter of cassava residues and its utilization is important for improving the efficiency and profit in commercial scale cassava ethanol industry. In this study, three scenarios of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production were experimentally tested under same conditions and equipment. Based on the experimental results, a rigorous flowsheet simulation model was established on Aspen plus platform and the cost of cellulase enzyme and steam energy in the three cases was calculated. The results show that the simultaneous co-saccharification of cassava starch/cellulose and ethanol fermentation process (Co-SSF) provided a cost effective option of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production, while the utilization of cassava cellulose from cassava ethanol fermentation residues was not economically sound. Comparing to the current fuel ethanol selling price, the Co-SSF process may provide an important choice for enhancing cassava ethanol production efficiency and profit in commercial scale.


This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

Lee Seung Chul: The Best Live

Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production.


A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation.

Cassava is an important crop in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Cassava can be produced adequately in drought conditions making it the ideal food security crop in marginal environments. Although cassava can tolerate drought stress, it can be genetically improved to enhance productivity in such environments. Drought adaptation studies in over three decades in cassava have identified relevant mechanisms which have been explored in conventional breeding. Drought is a quantitative trait and its multigenic nature makes it very challenging to effectively manipulate and combine genes in breeding for rapid genetic gain and selection process. Cassava has a long growth cycle of 12–18 months which invariably contributes to a long breeding scheme for the crop. Modern breeding using advances in genomics and improved genotyping, is facilitating the dissection and genetic analysis of complex traits including drought tolerance, thus helping to better elucidate and understand the genetic basis of such traits. A beneficial goal of new innovative breeding strategies is to shorten the breeding cycle using minimized, efficient or fast phenotyping protocols. While high throughput genotyping have been achieved, this is rarely the case for phenotyping for drought adaptation. Some of the storage root phenotyping in cassava are often done very late in the evaluation cycle making selection process very slow.


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The production of biofuels using conventional fermentation feedstocks, such as sugar-and starch-based agricultural crops will in the long-term lead to a serious competition with human-animal food consumption. To avoid this competition, it is important to explore various alternative feedstocks especially those from inedible waste materials. Potentially, fruit wastes such as damaged fruits, peels and seeds represent alternative cheap feedstocks for biofuel production. In this work, an experimental study was conducted on ethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seeds through fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The effects of pH, temperature and ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds on the ethanol yield, substrate consumption and product formation rates were analyzed in the study. In flask-scale fermentation using the mixed cassava-durian seeds, it was found that the highest ethanol yield of 45/9 and a final ethanol concentration of 24/92 g/L were achieved at pH 5/0, temperature 35°C and 50:50 volume ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds for a batch period of 48 hours. Additionally, the ethanol, glucose and biomass concentration profiles in a lab-scale bioreactor were examined for the fermentation using the proposed materials under the flask-scale optimum conditions. The ethanol yield of 35/7 and a final ethanol concentration of 14/61 g/L were obtained over a period of 46 hours where the glucose was almost fully consumed. It is worth noting that both pH and temperature have significant impacts on the fermentation process using the mixed cassava-durian seeds.

A novel cleaner ethanol production process has been developed. Thin stillage is treated initially by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic digestion and then further treated by chloride anion exchange resin. This allows the fully-digested and resin-treated stillage to be completely recycled for use as process water in the next ethanol fermentation batch, which eliminates wastewater discharges and minimizes consumption of fresh water. The method was evaluated at the laboratory scale. Process parameters were very similar to those found using tap water. Maximal ethanol production rate in the fully-recycled stillage was 0/9g/L/h, which was similar to the 0/9g/L/h found with the tap water control. The consumption of fresh water was reduced from 4/1L/L (fresh water/ethanol) to zero. Compared with anaerobically-aerobically digested stillage which had not been treated with resin, the fermentation time was reduced by 28% (from 72h to 52h) and reached the level achieved with tap water. This novel process can assist in sustainable development of the ethanol industry.


Retting is an important step in traditional cassava processing that involves tissue softening of the roots to transform the cassava into flour and various food products. The tissue softening that occurs during retting was attributed to the degradation of cell wall pectins through the action of pectin-methylesterase and pectate-lyase that possibly originated from a microbial source or the cassava plant itself. Changes in cell wall composition were investigated during retting using chemical analysis, specific glycanase degradation and immuno-labelling of cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic 1,4-β-d-galactan was the main cell wall polysaccharide affected during the retting of cassava roots. This result suggested that better control of pectic galactan degradation and a better understanding of the degradation mechanism by endogenous endo-galactanase and/or exogenous microbial enzymes might contribute to improve the texture properties of cassava products.

El análisis factorial confirmatorio demostró que la versión del instrumento para el portugués brasileño está adecuadamente ajustado a la estructura dimensional originalmente propuesta por los autores de la escala. Fueron observadas diferencias estadísticamente significantes entre los enfermeros con título de maestría o doctorado, con características favorables a la Práctica Basada en Evidencias, y actuantes en institución con cultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación.


The aims of the experiment were to investigate the variation in ruminal fermentation, milk performance and milk fatty acid profile triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and to evaluate the ability of beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground maize in order to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets (total mixed rations) during four successive periods (each of 17 d): (1) without wheat (W0); (2) with 10% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W10); (3) with 20% FGW (W20); (4) with 20% FGW and 10% pelleted BP (BP10). Inducing SARA by diet W20 decreased the daily mean ruminal pH (6/37 vs. 5/94) and the minimum ruminal pH (5/99 vs. 5/41) from baseline to challenge period. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate, butyrate, valerate and isovalerate increased with the W20 compared with the W0 and W10 treatments. The substitution of BP for maize increased the minimum ruminal pH and molar percentage of acetate and decreased the molar percentage of butyrate. The diets had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield, but the milk fat percentage and yield as well as the amount of fat-corrected milk was reduced in the W20 and BP10 treatments. The cows fed the W20 diet had greater milk concentrations of C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:1, C18:2n6c, C20:3n6, total polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total odd-chain FA, and lower concentrations of C18:0 and total saturated FA compared with the cows fed the W0 diet. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in ruminal fermentation, milk fat concentration and fatty acid profile are highly related to SARA induced by feeding high FGW diets, and that the substitution of BP for maize could reduce the risk of SARA in dairy cows.

Recent studies have shown fondaparinux's superiority over enoxaparin in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially in relation to bleeding reduction. The description of this finding in a Brazilian registry has not yet been documented. To compare fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in in-hospital prognosis of non-ST elevation ACS. Multicenter retrospective observational study. A total of 2,282 patients were included (335 in the fondaparinux group, and 1,947 in the enoxaparin group) between May 2021 and May 2021. Demographic, medication intake and chosen coronary treatment data were obtained. Primary outcome was mortality from all causes. Secondary outcome was combined events (cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, death, stroke and bleeding). Comparison between the groups were done through Chi-Square test and T test. Multivariate analysis was done through logistic regression, with significance values defined as p brasileiro ainda não foi documentada.


To analyze the factors associated with self-reported diabetes among adult participants of the National Health Survey (PNS). Cross-sectional study using data of the PNS carried out in 2021, from interviews with adults (≥ 18 years) of 64,348 Brazilian households. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, assessed by the question "Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes ," was related to sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, self-reported chronic disease, and self-evaluation of the health condition. Prevalence ratios were adjusted according to age, sex, and schooling by Poisson regression with robust variance. The diagnosis of diabetes was reported by 6/2% of respondents. Its crude prevalence was higher in women (7/0% vs. 5/4%), and among older adults, reaching 19/8% in the elderly. Black adults who received less schooling showed higher prevalence. Among those classified as obese, 11/8% reported having diabetes. Ex-smokers, those insufficiently active and those who consume alcohol abusively reported diabetes more often. Differences were not verified in eating habits among adults who reported, or did not, diabetes.

More than 250 million Africans rely on the starchy root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) as their staple source of calories. A typical cassava-based diet, however, provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein and only 10-20% of that for iron, zinc, and vitamin A. The BioCassav.


The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.