Fortuitously, a satellite called BRITE-Toronto was already studying the nova's patch of sky. This miniature spacecraft is one of five 7/9-inch (20 centimeter) cubic nanosatellites comprising the Bright Target Explorer (BRITE) Constellation. Operated by a consortium of universities from Canada, Austria and Poland, the BRITE satellites study the structure and evolution of bright stars and observe how they interact with their environments.

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PCLOB Report on 215, supra note 110, at 57. Id. at 16, 103. Id. at 95. Id. at 95–96.


To measure centimeters, use a ruler with the side marked either cm or mm. Align the edge of the object with the first centimeter (https://kislovoadmin.ru/hack/?patch=1244) line on the ruler, then find the length in whole centimeters, or the larger numbers on the ruler. If the measurement isn’t exact, count the number of millimeters, or the smaller lines on the ruler, past the largest whole centimeter. Each millimeter is a tenth of a centimeter. If you need to estimate centimeters using objects, keep reading!

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Solutions to these problems of standardization (quality control) and containment (mission control) were sought in the creation of two new institutions. President Bush announced this new direction and the first of these new organizations, the Terrorist Threat Integration Center (TTIC), in his January 2003 State of the Union address to Congress: Since September the 11th, our intelligence and law enforcement agencies have worked more closely than ever to track and disrupt the terrorists. The FBI is improving its ability to analyze intelligence and is transforming itself to meet new threats. Tonight I am instructing the leaders of the FBI, the CIA, the Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense to develop a Terrorist Threat Integration Center, to merge and analyze all threat information in a single location. Our Government must have the very best information possible, and we will use it to make sure the right people are in the right places to protect all our citizens.


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This “checking-in” continues even when users are not in the process of making or receiving a call. All of these interactions between cell phone and cell towers produce CSLI, much of which subsequently is stored by service providers. Carriers store CSLI for diagnostic, billing, and other purposes for various periods, according to their particular business needs and practices. Disclosure of these historical data from cell phone providers can be compelled by law enforcement, whether with respect to one or multiple targets, for a single or limited amount of time (a few minutes or hours), or over an extended period (many months). Law enforcement can also request cell tower dumps – a full collection of carrier records of every cell phone that registered with a particular tower at a particular time. Cell tower dumps are a useful technique for determining the perpetrators of crimes such as multiple bank robberies, since they allow law enforcement to identify specific phones (and, by implication, phone owners) that were in the vicinity of the crime scenes. Another technique, called a community of interest request, involves the disclosure of the location information pertaining to all individuals who were called by or made calls to a particular target. This practice can help law enforcement identify unknown suspects potentially involved in criminal activity of a known target. Law enforcement can also track a suspect prospectively through the collection of CSLI. Specifically, law enforcement can compel the disclosure of CSLI received by the carrier in real time in the normal course of a phone’s communication with various cell sites.

Indeed, with respect to law enforcement access to cell phone location data, federal and state common and statutory law is still being written. As courts at various levels grapple with questions of whether or when law enforcement must obtain a warrant to compel disclosure of cell phone location data from a third party, what emerges is a vexing, complicated set of legal and policy questions that present core challenges to the application of the Fourth Amendment in the digital age. Can or will the third party doctrine, which limits constitutional protection of information shared with third parties, continue to be a viable rule in the digital age? What does a voluntary conveyance of information to a third party mean in the digital age? In identifying situations when the third party doctrine does not or should not apply, what factors will influence courts’ evaluation of whether there is a reasonable expectation of privacy in location data or in law enforcement’s tracking of a suspect’s location for short and long periods? The third party doctrine question was assiduously, if understandably, avoided by the majority’s property-based reasoning in Jones, leaving it for another day, even as Justice Sotomayor’s concurring opinion recognizes a need to reevaluate the third party doctrine in the digital age.


There is of course one very distinct similarity 4249between the two. Both belong to the category of reusedmaterial. The Sarnath Vihar in question has been builtmainly by reused earlier materials such as broken bricks,stone architectural members, both plain as well asdecorated etc. The stone pilaster as cited for comparisonwith octagonal stone block is also a reused specimen. It,thus, cannot be contemporary to the builder of the builderof the Vihar in question. There is no question on the date ofKumardevi.

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If the edge falls on a longer centimeter line marked with a whole number, the object is that many centimeters (https://kislovoadmin.ru/hack/?patch=590) long. For example, if the edge of an eraser ends at the line marked 7, the eraser is 7 cm long.

This provides a correct picture of the section and its cultural material. In the case of Ayodhya, the above- mentioned trenches show gaping holes from where brickbats have been removed.


It was a captivating moment, at once both humorous and dramatic: Chief Justice Roberts’s hypothetical had threatened the logic of Knotts and put Dreeben, temporarily at least, on his heels. The question cut to the core issues before the Court by throwing into high relief law enforcement’s unfettered, indiscriminate ability to track any individual’s movements in public for days, weeks, even months at a time using a credit card sized GPS device discreetly attached to the undercarriage of a car.

That most of these so called pillar bases of thenorthern side comprise of sqaure sandstone slabs, perhapsresting on calcrete blocks (only one has been excavatedthat reveals the calcrete block). The inner dimensions ofthese pillar bases range from 48/5x43, 50x50, 47x46,48x56, 49/5x49 and 51x51 cm. These dimensions arecompletely different from those of the pillars that haveactually been recovered.


Specifically, he believes that the cell phone customer neither possesses knowledge of his CSLI nor acts to disclose it to a third party in the same patently active manner found in all relevant Supreme Court precedents. What it means to convey information voluntarily to a third party and thus trigger application of the third party doctrine has implications beyond the location data space.

The next federal appellate court to address law enforcement access standards for compelled historical CSLI was the Fifth Circuit,85 which issued the first federal appellate court opinion directly to address how the Fourth Amendment applies to historical CSLI and a win for the government. The court, however, limited its ruling to the specific kinds of historic CSLI at issue in that case: historical location data created when the user places and terminates a call.


We have very carefully perused the site note book,day-to-day register as also more than twenty five video cassettesas well as the photographs but find nothing unusual which maycreate any suspicion in what the ASI has said in respect to pillarbases in his report. Except of minor typographical mistake,which is quite understandable in the manner they have workedand with the pace with which have accomplished such a giganticjob, that too under unusual circumstances where they wereconstantly watched by huge number of persons and officials ofthe Court.

I History Long before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there were plenty of watchlists in the United States. For the most part, these were in the possession of local or perhaps regional law enforcement offices, and they were neither computerized nor connected to other departments of government. Few national “databases” (to use an anachronism) existed in this analog era of file cabinets and note cards.


But the doctrine that followed, at least from the majority opinion, offered little to no guidance to lower courts with respect to whether and under what circumstances warrantless government tracking of a cell phone, with historical or prospective data, would be a violation of the Fourth Amendment. Specifically, the majority opinion offered a propertybased rationale – not a reasonable expectation of privacy analysis under Katz – in support of the holding that the government’s conduct constituted a Fourth Amendment search.

This was classic “stovepiping,” or “silo,” management of intelligence and the 9/11 commissioners took turns berating the officials who appeared before them for institutionalized hoarding of information. Notwithstanding their infrequent use, security directives were an important milestone in the history of the new watchlists. Security directives departed from the conventions of the old watchlists in important ways. This system was not linked to the criminal justice system or border protection. Its purposes were not investigatory but were not intended to be punitive either; the purpose was, singularly, aviation security. For the first time, watchlisting results were sent to private actors (airlines) directing them to take concrete action against an individual. They were not only the model but also the legal instrument through which the No-Fly List was created. Michael Jackson, second in command at the Department of Transportation on 9/11 and Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security from 2005 to 2007, recalled: It’s hard to underestimate the personal sense of responsibility that the senior government leaders felt in trying to do everything that was reasonable and yet doable to prevent another attack. And the watchlist was a core tool in that effort.


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It is true that Budha stupa is always solid. The structure shows a Pranal but Experts who visited site and measured the angle of slope with the help of sprit Level had found that the slope which was necessary for the water to pass out was not there. It is 4239 correct that I was not present when this structure was exposed nor I have visited this spot there after but I can express my opinion on the basis of information given by expert as well as the information in the final report and site notebooks.

During excavation at the disputed site betweentrenches E-8 & F-8 a circular structure of burnt bricks facingeast was recovered, commonly termed as "circular shrine", 4240detailed at page 70 to 72 of report, volume 1, and shown infigure 17, 24, 24A, and plates 59, 60 & 62 (volume 2) of thereport. The bricks used here are of two sizes: 28x21x5/5 cm and22x18x5 cm. The bonding material was mud mortar. On itseastern side, there is a rectangular opening, 1/32 m in length and32/5 cm in width, which was the entrance of the structure. Acalcrete block, measuring 70x27x17 cm, has also been foundhere, fixed, obviously, as the door-sill.


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Archaeology provides scientific factual data forreconstructing ancient historical material culture, understanding,archaeology for the past is a multi disciplinary scientific subjectand requires a team of workers for effective results. Excavationof ancient sites is one of the major works of Archaeologists. Asit is a scientific discipline, it uses scientific methods in itsworking. All archaeological excavations are and also at the sametime destructive; revealing in the sense they yield unknown datalike structures, antiquities etc, destructive that as one digs layerafter layer, the upper layer have to be removed to go deeper anddeeper to know more and may cause destruction of the site forany future excavation at that place.

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Moreover, alater temple could easily have incorporated an earliertemple into its plan and maintained the sanctity of theearlier structure. Instead, what is being suggested is thatthe central part of the later temple is much further away tothe north, about 20 m away.


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In such scenarios, the wireless carrier covertly pings a subscriber’s phone in order to locate it when a call is not being made. Such pings can reveal the nearest cell site to the subscriber or generate more accurate triangulated data, if requested. Triangulation is a process that occurs on the carrier’s network, developed as one response to Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Regulations requiring carriers to be able to locate wireless 911 callers. Multiple towers are used to track the phone’s location by measuring the time delay that a signal takes to return to the towers from the phone. Software in the carrier’s network then calculates a location position for the phone, typically within fifty meters – and emerging versions of this technology will likely increase accuracy. Some carriers routinely track and record triangulated data, and movement toward this practice is a general trend in the industry. As such, law enforcement agencies can also obtain high-accuracy, triangulated historical data when it is available under a specific company’s data collection practices.


That it seems that originally the aim was to create"pillar bases" all over the excavated area. Eight so called"pillar bases" were carved out in the L series of trenches ascan be seen by Appendix IV. (p. 17) of the Final Report. Aspointed out, there is no mention of these in the individualSite Note Books of the L series of trenches.

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The foundation of the pillar bases are circular,square, oval, or irregular in shape and the foundation has beenfilled with brick bats covered with orthostat which prima facieestablishes its load bearing nature. It is also clear from the reportthat all the fifty pillar bases, more or less are of similar patternexcept the orthostate position. The factual position is that thepillar bases of northern side which are admitted by the plaintiffsand other objectors to be pillar bases are undisturbed andunexposed whereas the pillar bases of the southern side aredamaged and exposed but in any way there is no basicdifference between the two. The isometric view is a geometricaldrawing to show a building in three dimensions. The plan is setup with lines at an equal angle (usually 300) to the horizontal,while verticals remain vertical and to scale. It gives a morerealistic effect than an axonometric projection, but diagonalsand curves are distorted. The existence of pillar bases waschallenged by the objectors on the ground that the distancebetween the pillar bases, the spot position is not common assuch the same may not be considered pillar bases. In thisconnection reference may be given of plan of Ukha Mandirtemple converted in to a Masjid published at surveyor generaloffice Calcutta in 1877 in which square pillars were found withdifferent angles and distances. Similarly in temple of Vishala 4182Devi pillar bases of different sizes with different distances werefound which to has been lithograph at the surveyor generaloffice Calcutta in July 1877.


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See Brief for Respondent, supra note 3, at 1–3. Respondent Jones draws from and quotes many sources when providing his summary description.

In this trench,part of the wall of the northern dome of the Babri Masjid isstill standing. A sandstone slab was recovered in the north-western corner of the trench at 2/30 m bsl. On excavation,brickbats were found lying all over the trench and Floor 2was partially seen below the brickbats at 3/08 m belowsurface level (bsl). On the 9th of July 2003, brickbats wereselectively removed, leaving those only around thesandstone slab. Further excavation down to Floor 3 at 3/35m bsl revealed a similar layer of brickbats under it. Finallythe so called pillar base was created by heaps of brickbatsthat had been left in place around a sandstone slab whileremoving all the other brickbats in the rest of the trench. Acomplaint was lodged during excavation about the creationof this "pillar base".


D IMSI Catchers As previously discussed, IMSI catcher technology permits the covert, direct collection of location data, which I’ve termed unmediated surveillance because production of the data is not compelled from a third party provider and it is difficult, if not impossible, to detect when the surveillance occurs. IMSI catchers silently call out to mobile devices, tricking them into believing they are communicating with legitimate cell towers and forcing them to identify themselves. In 2021, a decade after the Harris Corporation introduced the StingRay, the FBI’s use of the device surfaced during the pretrial stages of a criminal case.

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Of this structure,however, only four alleged "pillar bases", with"foundations" attached to Floor 4, have been found; and itis astonishing that this should be sufficient to ascribe them10th -11th century and to assume that they all belong to onestructure. That structure is proclaimed as "huge",extending nearly 50 metres that separate the "pillar-bases"at the extremes. Four "pillar bases" can hardly have heldsuch a long roof, and if any one tried it on them it is notsurprising that the result was "short-loved" (Report, p.


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Thus, the pillars that would havestood on the northern side pillar bases were certainly notthe black stone pillars. These northern pillar bases are theones numbered 1-8, 13 and 14, by the ASI.

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Find the length to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. Look at the last whole centimeter the edge of the object passes. Then, count the number of millimeters past the last whole centimeter that the object’s edge goes. Each millimeter is one-tenth of a centimeter. So, to find the length, combine the number of whole centimeters and tenths of a centimeter.


Unlike the NCTC, given a statutory foundation by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the only legal basis for the TSC is HSPD-6. By Fiscal Year 2007, the TSC had secured an $83 million budget and 408 staffed positions.

That the theory of the so-called temple rests on someother reported architectural fragments also. Out of about 4246380 pieces have been tabulated, 205 are featureless withonly marks of dressing or in some cases are completelyundressed stones. To give examples, No. 122 (Reg. No. 882)kept in Manas Bhawan is a rectangular piece with peckingmarks and partially polished (p. 129), No. 131 (Reg.


In the metric system, centi always indicates 1/100th, so a centimeter is 1/100th of a meter

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The hypaethral and circular temples of yoginis arewell known in north and Central India. They have beenmentioned by Krishna Deva as at Dudhai in Jhansi district,Mitaoli in Morena district. Bheraghat in Jabalpur district,Ranipur Jharial in Bolangir district and Surada near Kalahandiand Hirapur near Bhubaneswar in Orissa. They range from16/72 m to 39/52 m in outer diameter, with 65 to 81 peripheralchapels and a principal shrine, normally in the centre of thecourtyard. Inscribed yogini images from Central India suggestmore such temples and one such shrine has been excavated andidentified as Golakimatha in Jabalpur district (Krishna Deva1999). The proliferation of circular temples with theiridentification with the types mentioned in classical treatisesrequire further investigative studies of their origin anddevelopmental process.


L’albero motore girava suquattro cuscinetti lisci e gli alberi a camme giravano su dei rotolamenti ad aghi. Questo nuovo motore sviluppava 460 cavalli a 11500 giri. Iltelaio era sempre tubolare avvolto in lamiere d’alluminio. Le sospensioni erano praticamente immutate. Le numerose rotture del motoredurante il periodo di prove convinsero Chris Amon ad andare allaMarch. La sua partenza fu compensata dal ritorno di Jacky Ickx, entusiasmato dalla nuova Ferrari. Nonostante ciò, la stagione cominciòanche per il pilota belga con tre abbandoni. Dal Gran Premio delBelgio, che terminò all’8° posto, fu spalleggiato da Giunti e poi daClay Regazzoni. La stagione terminò meglio di come era cominciataper Jacky Ickx, che si aggiudicò quattro Gran Premi con la sua 312 Be anche Clay Regazzoni vinse una gara.

These courts did not endorse this theory. DOJ Manual, supra note 27, at 159–160.


That the foundation of the Babri Masjid hasdecorated stone blocks along with plain sandstone andcalcrete blocks and bricks. This is natural in theconstruction of a foundation where any available motleymaterial would be used, as the foundation would not bevisible.

TSDB is an unclassified but sensitive watchlist. Its records link to, but do not necessarily reveal, information that is classified either because of its substantive content or because it could reveal sources or methods of intelligence collection. In other words, this “card catalog” provides enough information about the book on the restricted shelves of this closed library to be useful, but no more. Access beyond the card catalog is therefore yet another function of the Terrorist Screening Center, which serves as the liaison between frontline operators and sources of intelligence.


Appendix IV of the Final Reprton p. 10 mentions two disturbed "pillar bases" for TrenchG7. It needs to be emphasized that the Site Note Books arethe result of the trench supervisor's observations andimpressions. Interpretations may also form a part of SiteNote Books. But, here, we find that trench supervisors makeno mention of anything remotely like a "pillar base" butthese suddenly appear in the Final Report.

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A Prospective Location Data and the Magistrate’s Revolt Locating the proper law enforcement access standard for prospective CSLI in the ECPA is, in some respects, like the quest for the Holy Grail, the search for the fountain of youth, or the hunt for a truly comfortable pair of high heels – the desired end may prove forever elusive. This legal mystery remains unsolved primarily for two reasons.


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Archaeological site or remains, therefore, is a site or remains which could be explored in order to study the life and culture of the ancient peoples. The two expressions, therefore, bear different meanings.

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That On p. 68 are described two niches in the innerside of Wall 16 at an interval of 4/60 m I trenches E6 andE7. These were 0/20 m deep and 1 m wide. A similar nichewas found in Trench ZE2 in the northern area and thesehave been attributed to the first phase of construction of theso called 'massive structure' associated with Wall 16. Suchniches along the inner face of a western wall, are againcharacteristic of mosque/ Eidgah construction.


No archaeologist in this country canundertake an archaeological expedition at a historical site ofimportance without permission or licence from ASI. The statusenjoined t ASI which we have already referred, empowers it tocontrol all these activities. The finds and researches as well asthe determination and conclusion of any archaeologist or otherexpert in this field is not normally recognised unless it has beenscrutinized by ASI and after approval it is also published in theregular journals of ASI.

Interestingly, we find that in the two majorcomplaints dated 21st May, 2003 and 7th June, 2003 submitted tothe Observer when the excavation was going on, the allegationsof creation of pillar base mainly were made in those verytrenches where the GPR Survey has already detected anomaliesin the form of pillar bases etc. The complaints were already tosome extent aware of likelyhood of finding pillar bases in thosetrenches.


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A neutral magistrate may be involved, but in nonpublic, ex parte ways. Evidentiary requirements may be lower. The complexities of this environment are the reason for this book. But even in this hazier borderland, the same divide must eventually be crossed if the suspect is to become an accused.

Earlier, in the historybooks written in the first part of the 20th century, there was noconcept of "Early Medieval", the "Ancient" ended in the 11thcentury and "Medieval" started in the 12th century. Thus there isabsolutely no need of making sarcastic remarks against theArchaeological Survey of India, as the historians themselveshave not been unanimous on this issue during the last onehundred years. Earlier, even "Hindu", "Muslim" and "British"were the designations of the three-fold division of Indianhistory.


It was supervised by two Judicial Officers throughout the excavation. Besides these observers, parties, their counsels nominees and experts were also present during excavation. Day to day register was maintained during excavation on day to day basis by ASI but so far as site note book is concerned I don't know about it. Day to day register was signed by parties or their nominees and Advocates regularly on day to day basis. Antiquity register was not maintained by ASI on day to day basis. During my stay at the excavation site I did not sign on the daily register.

You think you’re entitled to do that under your theory? Mr. Dreeben: The Justices of this Court?


That during excavation, brickbats were selectivelyremoved so as to leave brickbat heaps around stone piecesand blocks. If no sandstone or calcrete blocks or slabs werenoted, heaps of brickbats were left at intervals of 3/00-3/30m.

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The head has a pair of smooth and slightly folded rhinophores. A trapezoid veil masks partially the oral cavity.


That the northern area is the only area of the sitewhere pillar bases have been found. In an area of about 10x 10 m, these were embedded in Floor 1 and hence werecontemporary with Floor 1. These pillar bases comprise ofsquare sandstone slabs, of which only one has beenexcavated with a calcrete block.

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Which the western portion has been lost. The wall is in the form of a trapezoid with a large base.


Thirdly, there is no trace of an arch required forconstructing dome over the tomb. There are no hook-shafts tobear and no structural trace to suggest any lateral thrust of themihrab. It may be noted that the sub-structure of the mihrab isbuilt massively on the edges of the four corners, to counter thelateral thrust. One wonders, if it was a tomb without any arch ordome, and without even a grave?

It is correct to say that as per this figure 70, this drain is going northwards. It is also correct to say that the Buddhist stupas do not have such north- bound drains.


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Out of this 40 too, none were specifiedto a temple, even the 8 that have been separatelymentioned: pillar, doorjamb, octagonal shaft of pillar,amalaka, divine couple, slab with srivatsa motif, lotusmedallion and a re-chiselled slab with lozenge design, areof no significance. The srivatsa design is associated withJainism and the lotus design could as well be Buddhist oreven Muslim. The lozenge design could well belong to aMuslim structure. It is also interesting that the floral designon the architectural fragment in Plate 90 matches the lowerportion of the Arabic inscription in Plate 92. The latterdepicts a floral design and the design, as sell as the methodof carving, in the two pieces are very similar.

That there is yet another important feature of the socalled Shrine that needs comment. It is about it's suggestedwater channel. Stylistically, its northward orientation hasbeen marked to have some special significance.


Pedestal stones were nowhere in them. Only towards Sita Rasoi, above some pillar bases have been found stones, which are different from the pedestals.

Thus, although the FBI would almost always need a warrant to obtain information about an American’s possible involvement in a crime, the NSA can warrantlessly obtain communications without even identifying the individual to the FISA Court as long as there is some foreign intelligence purpose to the program of surveillance. The NSA can then hand the raw data over to the FBI for the Bureau’s exploitation and indefinite retention.


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Convert millimeters to centimeters. There are 10 millimeters in 1 centimeter. To convert millimeters to centimeters, you need to divide the number of millimeters by 10.

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Postal Inspection Services Inspector James L. Wilson, that “on 7/16/08, we were informed that they were able to track a signal and were using a ‘Sting[R]ay’ to pinpoint the location of the aircard”). These strategic choices appear to include conceding, arguendo, that its efforts to locate Rigmaiden’s data card constituted a Fourth Amendment search and seizure. With the concession, the details about the StingRay and how it was employed in the investigation of Rigmaiden would, presumably, be less or not relevant to Rigmaiden’s attempts to litigate various Fourth Amendment–based suppression motions he filed, and thus protect certain details about the technology and its use from disclosure.

The TSC received much less fanfare than the TTIC, and certainly no mention in presidential addresses, but it was the core of the developing watchlist system. The consolidation of the federal government’s information was important, but would take time – TIDE did not become operational until May 2005. TIDE also did not resolve continuing problems in the efficient use of information, the fundamental feature of the new watchlisting. One problem was interagency coordination, as illustrated by conflicts between the FBI and TSA over the NoFly List. Another was quality control – a massive database full of inaccurate, partial, or old information could do more harm than good. The TSC was the institutional solution to these problems.

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That a close observation of the excavation andrecording was done of Trench G2 from May 16 to May 20,2003. It was found that brickbats randomly scattered overthe entire excavated area were selectively removed so as tocreate a visual impression that the brickbats were confinedto only a portion of the excavated area.


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I do not know whether the GPR report has revealedanomalies exactly on the spot where subsequently ASI hasshown the pillar bases. I do not know whether ASI hasindicated 22 pillar bases exactly on such spot whereanomalies were shown in GPR report.

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That further, and more important, the recordedfindspot (p. 130) of this piece is Trenches K3-K4 (in theeast) and the recorded layer is "Debris". Clearly, this pieceof sculpture does not come from a stratified context, leavealone the strata of Period VII.


Swimmer's Cut, similar to a stretched trapezoid on top of a rectangle. Used by SEALs and other seaborne units.

A PowerPoint presentation Healy gave to congressional staff (and provided to the author in unclassified form) illustrates this relationship (see Figure 3/2). Why, one might ask, would “consolidation” mean creating two massive databases, TIDE housed at the TTIC/NCTC and the TSDB housed at the TSC? Like an oldfashioned card catalog system, the TSDB kept track of the library of terrorist information housed in the TIDE and in FBI intelligence about domestic terrorism (which by law could not be collected by the CIA). Just as one might ask a librarian for help finding a particular book in the closed stacks of a library, the TSC guided access to the federal government’s terrorist information. And by curating the TSDB, the Terrorist Screening Center used the authority given by HSPD-6 to set standards for all agencies submitting biographical and substantive information – known as “derogatory” information in watchlisting nomenclature – into this system. Interposing the TSC-controlled TSDB between frontline users such as airport screeners or police officers and the NCTC-controlled TIDE served another function.


But it also sounds oddly routine; the arriving képis take it in stride. Of course they have a go-to list of suspects. Good police work means keeping track of people, especially those whose objectively verifiable criminal record or subjectively assessed character elicits suspicion about their future conduct. We might call these the first watchlists: quite literally, lists of people worth watching. How else does the cop walking his usual beat “know” his assigned neighborhood save for the list of bad apples he has drawn up in his mind?

Other problems show how to find the area of rectangles, triangles and trapezoids. The final six problems are related to the slopes of pyramids.


This'structure' had been objected to earlier in a complaint filedon 21st May 2003. By the 26th of July, brickbats in thesouth-western part were recovered along with sandstonechips. Digging under Floor 1 revealed brickbats in theentire area, but the south-eastern and south-western areaswere excavated separately. It was very obvious that thesewere going to be made into so called pillar bases, eventhough brickbats had been found in the entire area. By11/40 am, the area was cleared but further diggingrevealed the same king of deposit of brickbats, mud, andbrick nodules. By afternoon, the so called "pillar base" inthe south-eastern area was created by removing brickbatsfrom its edges to give it a neat shape. Glazed were sherdswere found at this level. The so called "pillar base" in thesouth-western part of the trench was cleared of brickbats ofmake it equal in size to its counterpart and a piece of 4154broken floor sticking to it was removed. Very obviously,these so called pillar bases were created by selectivelyremoving brickbats that lie under each floor. A complaintwas lodged during excavation about the creation of this socalled "pillar base".

Moreover, the DOJ takes the position that: [a] “wire communication” necessarily involves the human voice. See § 2510(1) (defining “wire communication”) and § 2510 (defining “aural transfer”); S. Rep.


Ray suggests that AD 916 should be accepted as the line ofdemarcation between the two periods in the history of northern 4124India. In his opinion: "these may be called the ancient and themedieval periods; but it would be perhaps more reasonable tocall them simply the Hindu period and the period of the Turksand Afghans. A similar approach has been adopted by someother scholars. In the fifth volume of the "History and cultureof the Indian People", it is said at one place that ancient Indiacame to an end in AD 997, (the period subsequent wheretoMahmood Gazni invaded on the northern front) and again atanother, that in Indian history the medieval factor wasintroduced in the thirteenth century. Both views are based on theassumption that the Muslim conquest ushered in mediaevalismin India. Does it mean that without the Muslim conquest therewould have been no mediaevalism in India? Does it imply thatthe countries of Europe which escaped this conquest had nomediaeval period in their history?

Assistant Professor & Cyber Ethics Fellow, Army Cyber Institute and Department of English and Philosophy, United States Military Academy at West Point; Non-resident Affiliate Scholar, Stanford Center for Internet and Society. The views expressed are those of the author and do not reflect the position of West Point, the Army or the United States Government.


What and Which Direction Forward? Although the Supreme Court definitively held in Jones that the attachment of a GPS tracking device to a vehicle with the intent to gain information is a Fourth Amendment search, little else is settled doctrine in the context of law enforcement access to location data and use of tracking technologies. The DOJ, as a matter of policy, is requiring prosecutors and agents to obtain a warrant before using an IMSI catcher to locate or track an individual.

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We thus see that these 50 features belong to different floorsand therefore could not all have been functional at thesame time. They lack coherence as architectural features. Itis irresponsible, therefore, to repeatedly refer to "rows" ofthese features, as has been done in the report. Some of these features appear to incorporate all sorts ofmaterial: pieces of brick, small stones and brick pieces,long stone slabs, and D-shaped large stones, etc. This alsoleads to the inference that all these structures could notbelong to any one period.


Phones receive signals from the satellites but do not transmit anything back to them. Similar to GPS vehicle tracking devices, software on the phone can use these signals to calculate latitude and longitude, often within ten meters of accuracy. Although GPS can be more accurate than other cell phone location technology, there are a few limitations. First, GPS signals are weak high-frequency signals that do not penetrate walls. As a result, GPS often does not work when devices are indoors. Moreover, for the same reason, GPS often does not function well in “urban canyons” because of signal deflection off the sides of tall buildings. Furthermore, the GPS functionality tends to use significant amounts of power, which can lead to shorter battery life. When GPS functionality is available, whether because the user dials 911 or law enforcement agencies compel its use, wireless carriers can determine and prospectively track a device’s location. Carriers do not, however, generally have historical GPS data to deliver. Many smart phones now provide access to GPS functionality through third party “apps” installed on the devices.

The StingRay and other similar devices also have the capacity, if so configured, to intercept data transmitted and received by a target phone, including the content of calls, text messages, numbers dialed, and Web pages visited. These and other interception capabilities are a product of the StingRay’s exploitation of a persistent vulnerability in the 2G protocol: telephones operating in 2G cannot authenticate cell towers, which enables rogue towers to impersonate legitimate ones in a cellular network. Although 3G and 4G networks have addressed this vulnerability, these networks can be jammed, forcing nearby phones to communicate using the vulnerable 2G protocol. As long as phones include the capability to communicate using 2G – an essential backward compatibility while 2G service remains widespread in rural areas – the latest smart phones will remain vulnerable to decades-old security flaws. Moreover, governments friendly to the United States are not the only foreign entities that possess or can acquire IMSI catcher technology.


Attorney’s Offices for the Southern District of New York and the District of Maryland. Dr. Andrew Keane Woods is Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Kentucky College of Law where he writes on cybersecurity and the regulation of technology. He is also a contributor to Lawfare.

In 2021, the New York Times revealed that the Target Corporation mined seemingly innocuous data, such as the purchasing of unscented lotions, common vitamin supplements, and cotton balls, in order to identify pregnant customers, to whom it would then send tailored offers and coupons. In one notorious instance, this targeted advertising revealed a teenager’s pregnancy to her family, hardly the way one would wish to learn of such a life-altering event. Yet this seems merely a precursor of what is to come. A more recent study found that machine analysis of Facebook “likes” better predicted personality and associated lifestyle choices than did real-world friends. Such commercial data fusion and analysis are of interest in their own right – designed for exploitation by advertisers and employers – but they will also be transferred to or accessed by government agencies. In short, there is good reason for renewed interest among lawmakers, business leaders, attorneys, academics, and the general public regarding legal and policy issues relating to both public and private surveillance. This handbook documents and organizes these conversations, drawing together some of the most thoughtful and impactful contributors to contemporary surveillance debates, policies, and practices.


It is 'V'shaped so that water may drop a little away from the wall. Inthis connection it may be mentioned that in books of history, inSanskrit Literature, reference of circular shrine and Pranalafinds place. A famous book styled as "Aaprajit Prichchha" byBhuwan Dev in its book in chapter 207 at serial no. 23 mentionsabout it.

Besides, in Trench F-6, three pillar bases,Trench G-2, two pillar bases and Trench H-1, two pillar baseshave been found. Foundation of these pillar bases are circular,square, oval or irregular in shape.


The use of location data and location tracking technologies by law enforcement agencies is becoming increasingly common as technological developments enable collection of more accurate and precise location data. The law governing law enforcement access to such data and tracking technologies remains, for the most part, unsettled. This chapter explores these technologies, the current state of the law, and many of the vexing questions and issues they raise.

Make sure that the measuring object is flat against the side of the item being measured each time you shift its position. The item being measured must remain in the same position the entire time.


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In many cases, if law enforcement did obtain a court order to use a StingRay, it was not by a probable cause warrant but, instead, a Pen Register/Trap and Trace Order (“Pen/ Trap Order”), which only requires a law enforcement agent to certify to a court that the information sought is “relevant and material” to an ongoing investigation. In one federal case, United States v. Lambis,119 the DEA obtained a Pen/Trap Order and used an IMSI catcher to locate the defendant inside an apartment building. The federal district court found that this use of the IMSI catcher constituted a Fourth Amendment search. Among other precedents, the court cited Kyllo v. United States,120 a case where the Supreme Court also found that law enforcement’s use of a heat sensing device, which was not then in general public use, to explore interior details of a home that were imperceptible to agents without the device’s aid constituted a search.

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That the brick crush layer was not a floor but a levelling mechanism to level the area for the building of subsequent structures. This is because the brick crush layer can be seen to be of varying thickness in different trenches. C. That Structure 4 to the ASI essentially seems to consist of a massive western wall and (so called) pillar bases and has been considered to have been a (so called) temple. The important point is why should the western wall have been so massive (1/77 metre) and the other walls so thin (0/48-0/55 metre)? Such wide western walls are a feature of mosque construction and not of temple construction. Temple walls, in fact, are of uniform thickness.


B The Jones Opinions Much of the conversation about contemporary location tracking technologies intersects with the Supreme Court’s 2021 decision in United States v. Jones. The facts in the Jones case involved law enforcement’s warrantless tracking of a Jeep Cherokee for thirty days with a GPS device attached to the undercarriage of the vehicle.

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C IMSI Catchers Carrier-assisted surveillance is not the only means law enforcement can use to determine a cell phone’s location. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) catchers impersonate cellular network base stations, thus tricking nearby phones and other mobile devices into identifying themselves by revealing their unique serial numbers, just as they would in registering with genuine base stations in the immediate vicinity. As each phone in the area identifies itself, the IMSI catcher can determine the location from which the signal originated. Moreover, when searching for a particular mobile device somewhere in an urban area, the IMSI catcher sends signals into buildings, calls out to surrounding area devices to identify themselves, and then locates the target device, often with more accuracy than a carrier could provide. These surveillance devices can be carried by hand, installed in a vehicle, or even mounted on a plane or drone. IMSI catchers, commonly known as “StingRays” according to the Harris Corporation’s band name for their version of the technology, are an example of an active, unmediated surveillance device. They are active (rather than passive)21 in the sense that they call out to nearby mobile devices to identify themselves –like a high-tech version of the game Marco Polo.


The Archaeologist said that the matter needs furtherinvestigation. It is thus further investigation which has infactfortified and explained the earlier structure also. The pillar basesin general were found during excavation in regular bases forcolumns constructed in a proper pattern with equal distancepattern in regular style. The calcrete stones were topped bysandstone blocks over which pillars must have rested. Brickbatswere used in their foundation in the same manner as brickaggregates were used in foundation of walls. The brickbatscourse of the foundation rested under the ground.

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First, most watchlists had a foreign orientation – consular officers, customs agents, and other officials created lists that reflected their agency mission, which tended to be oriented to foreign threats and concerns at the border. Thus, few paid attention to the effect on the watchlisted themselves, who on the whole lacked legally cognizable interests or political representation. In any event, these were old-fashioned watchlists. Follow-up action – whether an arrest, deportation, visa denial, or asset seizure – was invariably public, traceable to the agency, and subject to judicial review. Second, information sharing was the exception, not the rule.


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These are the part of the floors. Inreference to plate no. 43, the witness stated that the pillarsbase have been created by removing the brick bats aroundit and the photograph shows the alleged pillar base afterremoval of brick-bats. In Plates no. 46 and 47, the lowerfloor is visible. Besides decorative stones, decorative brickswere also recovered.

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This is thesituation also of the decorated / moulded bricks. Needless 4250to mention that moulded bricks were quite prevalent inGupta Period.


The seventeen rows of pillar bases were constructed 4131along the north-south running brick wall (wall 16) on thewest. The distance of the first pillar base in each row fromthe wall ranges from 3/60 to 3/86m. Seventeen rows ofpillar bases could be categorised in three different groupson the basis of north-south distance which varies indifferent groups whereas east-west distance from centre tocentre of each pillar base vary from 2/90 to 3/30m. Six rowsof the pillar bases on north and south were at theequidistance which ranges from 3 to 3/30m.

In other words, it caneasily be appreciated that the mind of two experts insteadworking for the assistance of the Court in finding a truth, tried tocreate a background alibi so that later on the same may beutilized to attack the very findings. However, this attempt hasnot gone well since some of these very pillar bases have beenadmitted by one or the other expert of plaintiffs (Suit-4) to becorrect.


You can also convert other units of measurement to centimeters

The easiest objects to use are a standard pencil, pen, or highlighter. The width of a pencil is close to 1 cm.

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There was now a watchlist available to every police officer in the United States, expanding the list of bad apples and “usual suspects” far beyond any previous capacity. According to a former TSC director: So if you are speeding, you get pulled over, they’ll query that name. And if they are encountering a known or suspected terrorist, it will pop up and say call the Terror[ist] Screening Center.


The important feature pointed out is thatthere were seventeen rows of pillar bases from North to South,each row having 5 pillar bases. There is no North-South row ofthe West of wall 16 and17, as is being read and suggested by theaforesaid experts of plaintiffs (Suit-4).